Cure Arthritis Naturally

Cure Arthritis Naturally

Get Instant Access

Alkhatib, G., Ahuja, S. S., Light, D., Mummidi, S., Berger, E. A., and Ahuja, S. K. (1997). CC chemokine receptor 5-mediated signaling and HIV-1 co-receptor activity share common structure determinants. J Biol Chem 272, 19771-19776.

Alkhatib, G., Combadiere, C., Broder, C. C., Feng, Y., Kennedy, P. E., and Murphy, P. M. (1996). CC CKR5: ARANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta receptor as a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Science 272, 1955-1958.

Amara, A., Gall, S. L., Schwartz, O., Salamero, J., Montes, M., Loetscher, P., Baggiolini, M., Virelizier, J.-L., and Arenzana-Seisdedos, F. (1997). HIV coreceptor downregulation as antiviral principle: SDF-1a-dependent internalization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 contributes to inhibition of HIV replication. J Exp Med 186, 139-146.

Arenzana-Seisdedos, F., Virelizier, J. L., Rousset, D., Clark-Lewis, I., Loetscher, P., Moser, B., and Baggiolini, M. (1996). HIV blocked by chemokine antagonist. Nature 383, 400.

Atchison, R. E., Gosling, J., Monteclaro, F. S., Franci, C., Digilio, L., Charo, I. F., and Goldsmith, M. A. (1996). Multiple extracellular elements of CCR5 and HIV-1 entry: Dissociation from response to chemokines. Science 274, 1924-1926.

Baggiolini, M., Dewald, B., and Moser, B. (1997). Human chemokines: An update. Annu Rev Immunol 15, 675-705.

Balashov, K. E. R., Weiner, H. L., and Hancock, W. W. (1999). CCR5(+) and CXCR3(+) T cells are increased in multiple sclerosis and their ligands MIP-1alpha and IP-10 are expressed in demyelinating brain lesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 6873-6878.

Bandres, J. C., Wang, Q. F., O'Leary, J., Baleaux, F., Amara, A., Hoxie, J. A., Zolla-Pazner, S., and Gorny, M. K. (1998). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope binds to CXCR4 independently of CD4, and binding can be enhanced by interaction with soluble CD4 or by HIV envelope deglycosylation. J Virol 72, 2500-2504.

Berger, E. A., Murphy, P. M., andFarber, J. M. (1999). Chemokine receptors as HIV-1 coreceptors: Roles in viral entry, tropism, and disease. Annu Rev Immunol 17, 657-700.

Bieniasz, P. D., Fridell, R. A., Aramori, I., Ferguson, S. S., Caron, M. G., and Cullen, B. R. (1997). HIV-1-induced cell fusion is mediated by multiple regions within both the viral envelope and the CCR-5 co-receptor. EMBO J 16, 2599-2609.

Blanpain, C., Doranz, B. J., Bondue, A., Govaerts, C., De Leener, A., Vassart, G., Doms, R. W., Proudfoot, A., and Parmentier, M. (2003). The core domain of chemokines binds CCR5 extracellular domains while their amino terminus interacts with the transmembrane helix bundle. J Biol Chem 278, 5179-5187.

Bleul, C. C., Farzan, M., Choe, H., Parolin, C., Clark-Lewis, I., and Sodroski, J. (1996a). The lymphocyte chemoattractant SDF-1 is a ligand for LESTR/fusin and blocks HIV-1 entry. Nature 382, 829-833.

Bleul, C. C., Fuhlbrigge, R. C., Casasnovas, J. M., Aiuti, A., and Springer, T. A. (1996b). A highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). J Exp Med 184(3), 1101-1109.

Bonecchi, R. B., Bordignon, P. P., D'Ambrosio, D., Lang, R., Borsatti, A., Sozzani, S., Allavena, P., Gray, P. A., Mantovani, A., and Sinigaglia, F. (1998). Differential expression of chemokine receptors and chemotactic responsiveness of type 1 T helper cells (Th1s) and Th2s. J Exp Med 187, 129-134.

Boshoff, C., Endo, Y., Collins, P. D., Takeuchi, Y., Reeves, J. D., Schweickart, V. L., Siani, M. A., Sasaki, T., Williams, T. J., Gray, P. W., Moore, P. S., Chang, Y., and Weiss, R. A. (1997). Angiogenic and HIV-inhibitory functions of KSHV-encoded chemokines. Science 278, 290-294.

Brelot, A., Heveker, N., Pleskoff, O., Sol, N., and Alizon, M. (1997). Role of the first and third extracellular domains of CXCR-4 in human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor activity. J Virol 71, 4744-4751.

Brelot, A., Heveker, N., Montes, M., and Alizon, M. (2000). Identification of residues of CXCR4 critical for human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor and chemokine receptor activities. J Biol Chem 275, 23736-23744.

Busse, W. W. L., (2001). Advances in immunology: Asthma. N Engl J Med 344, 350-362.

Cara, D. C., Kaur, J., Forster, M., McCafferty, D. M., and Kubes, P. (2001). Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in chemokine-induced emigration and chemotaxis in vivo. J Immunol 167, 6552-6558.

Chabot, D. J., and Broder, C. C. (2000). Substitutions in a homologous region of extracellular loop 2 of CXCR4 and CCR5 alter coreceptor activities for HIV-1 membrane fusion and virus entry. J Biol Chem 275, 23774-23782.

Chabot, D. J., Zhang, P. F., Quinnan, G. V., and Broder, C. C. (1999). Mutagenesis of CXCR4 identifies important domains for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 X4 isolate envelope-mediated membrane fusion and virus entry and reveals cryptic coreceptor activity for R5 isolates. J Virol 73, 6598-6609.

Charo, I. F. (1999). CCR2: From cloning to the creation of knockout mice. Chem Immunol 72, 30-41.

Cheng-Mayer, C., Seto, D., Tateno, M., and Levy, J. A. (1988). Biologic features of HIV-1 that correlate with virulence in the host. Science 240, 80-82.

Choe, H., Farzan, M., Sun, Y., Sullivan, N., Rollins, B., Ponath, P. D., Wu, L., Mackay, C. R., LaRosa, G., Newman, W., Gerard, N., Gerard, C., and Sodroski, J. S. (1996). The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Cell 85, 1135-1148.

Choi, W. T., Tian, S., Dong, C. Z., Kumar, S., Liu, D., Madani, N., An, J., Sodroski, J. G., and Huang, Z. (2005). Unique ligand binding sites on CXCR4 probed by a chemical biology approach: Implications for the design of selective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 inhibitors. J Virol 79, 15398-15404.

Chung, C. W., Cooke, R. M., Proudfoot, A. E., and Wells, T. N. (1995). The three-dimensional solution structure of RANTES. Biochemistry 34, 9307-9314.

Clapham, P. R., Blanc, D., and Weiss, R. A. (1991). Specific cell surface requirements for the infection of CD4-positive cells by human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and by Simian immunodeficiency virus. Virology 181, 703-715.

Clements, G. J., Proce-Jones, M. J., Stephens, P. E., Sutton, C., Schulz, T. F., Clapham, P. R., McKeating, J. A., McClure, M. O., Thomson, S., Marsh, M., Kay, J., Weiss, R. A., and Moore, H. P. (1991). The V3 loops of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 surface glycoproteins contain proteolytic cleavage sites: A possible function in viral fusion? AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 7, 3-16.

Cohen, S. B. K., Chu, P. D., Thomssen, C. Q., Webb, H., Maini, L. M., Londei, R. N., and Feldmann, M. (1995). High level of interleukin-10 production by the activated T cell population within the rheumatoid synovial membrane. Arthritis Rheum 38, 946-952.

Crump, M. P., Gong, J. H., Loetscher, P., Rajarathnam, K., Amara, A., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F., Virelizier, J. L., Baggiolini, M., Sykes, B. D., and Clark-Lewis, I. (1997). Solution structure and basis for functional activity of stromal cell-derived factor-1; dissociation of CXCR4 activation from binding and inhibition of HIV-1. EMBO J 16, 6996-7007.

Datema, R. L. R., Hincenberghs, M.-B., Moreno, S., Warren, V., Linquist, B., Rosenwirth, J., Seifert, J., Seifert, J., and McCune, M. (1996). Antiviral efficacy in vivo of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus bicyclam SDZ SID 791 (JM 3100), an inhibitor of infectious cell entry. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40, 750.

De Clercq, E. Y., Pauwels, R., Baba, M., Schols, D., Nakashima, H., Balzarini, J., Debyser, Z., Murrer, B. A., Schwartz, D., et al. (1992). Potent and selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2 replication by a class of bicyclams interacting with a viral uncoating event. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 5286-5290.

De Clercq, E. Y., Pauwels, R., Balzarini, J., Witvrouw, M., De Vreese, K., Debyser, Z., Rosenwirth, B. Peichl, P., Datema, R., et al. (1994). Highly potent and selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus by the bicyclam derivative JM3100. Highly potent and selective inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus by the bicyclam derivative JM3100. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38, 668-674.

Dealwis, C., Fernandez, E. J., Thompson, D. A., Simon, R. J., Siani, M. A., and Lolis, E. (1998). Crystal structure of chemically synthesized [N33A] stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha, a potent ligand for the HIV-1 ''fusin'' coreceptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 6941-6946.

Dechert, M. A., Holder, J. M., and Gerthoffer, W. T. (2001). p21-activated kinase 1 participates in tracheal smooth muscle cell migration by signaling to p38 Mapk. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 281, C123-132.

Deng, H., Liu, R., Ellmeier, W., Choe, S., Unutmaz, D., Burkhart, M., Marzio, P. D., Marmon, S., Sutton, R. E., Hill, C. M., Davis, C. B., Peiper, S. C., Schall, T. J., Littman, D. R., and Landau, N. R. (1996). Identification of a major co-receptor for primary isolates of HIV-1. Nature 381, 661-666.

Dolhain, R. J. t. H., Hoefakker, S., Tak, P. P., de Ley, M., Claassen, E., Breedveld, F. C., and Miltenburg, A. M. (1996). Increased expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma together with IFN-gamma receptor in the rheumatoid synovial membrane compared with synovium of patients with osteoarthritis. Br J Rheumatol 35, 24-32.

Dong, C. Z., Kumar, S., Choi, W. T., Madani, N., Tian, S., An, J., Sodroski, J. G., and Huang, Z. (2005). Different stereochemical requirements for CXCR4 binding and signaling functions as revealed by an anti-HIV, D-amino acid-containing SMM-chemokine ligand. J Med Chem 48, 7923-7924.

Donzella, G. A., Schols, D., Lin, S. W., Este, J. A., Nagashima, K. A., Maddon, P. J., Allaway, G. P., Sakmar, T. P., Henson, G., De Clercq, E., andMoore, J. P. (1998). AMD3100, a small molecule inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CXCR4 co-receptor. Nat Med 4, 72-77.

Doranz, B., Orsini, M., Turner, J., Hoffman, T., Berson, J., Hoxie, J., Peiper, S., Brass, L., and Doms, R. (1999). Identification of CXCR4 domains that support coreceptor and chemokine receptor functions. J Virol 73, 2752-2761.

Doranz, B. J., Rucker, J., Yi, Y., Smyth, R. J., Samson, M., Peiper, S. C., Parmentier, M., Collman, R. G., and Doms, R. W. (1996). A dual-tropic primary HIV-1 isolate that uses fusin and the beta-chemokine receptors CKR-5, CKR-3, and CKR-2b as fusion cofactors. Cell 85, 1149-1158.

Doranz, B. J., Grovit-Ferbas, K., Sharron, M. P., Mao, S. H., Goetz, M. B., Daar, E. S., Doms, R. W., and O'Brien, W. A. (1997). A small-molecule inhibitor directed against the chemokine receptor CXCR4 prevents its use as an HIV-1 coreceptor. J Exp Med 186, 1395-1400.

Doranz, B. J., Filion, L. G., Diaz-Mitoma, F., Sitar, D. S., Sahai, J., Baribaud, F., Orsinis, M. J., Benovic, J. L., Cameron, W., and Doms, R. W. (2001). AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17, 475-486.

Dragic, T., Litwin, V., Allaway, G. P., Martin, S. R., Huang, Y., Nagashima, K. A., Cayanan, C., Maddon, P. J., Koup, R. A., Moore, J. P., and Paxton, W. A. (1996). HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5. Nature 381, 667-673.

Dreyer, E. B., Kaiser, P. K., Offermann, J. T., and Lipton, S. A. (1990). HIV-1 coat protein neurotoxicity prevented by calcium channel antagonists. Science 248, 364-367.

Elsner, J. M., Bruhl, H., Dulkys, Y., Kimmig, D., Simmons, G., Clapham, P. R., Schlondorff, D., Kapp, A., Wells, T. N. and Proudfoot, A. E. (2000). Differential activation of CC chemokine receptors by AOP-RANTES. J Biol Chem 275, 7784-7794.

Endres, M. J., Clapham, P. R., Marsh, M., Ahuja, M., Turner, J. D., McKnight, A., Thomas, J. F., Stoebenau-Hag- garty, B., Choe, S., Vance, P. J., Wells, T. N., Power, C. A., Sutterwala, S. S., Doms, R. W., Landau, N. R., and Hoxie, J. A. (1996). CD4-independent infection by HIV-2 is mediated by fusin/CXCR4. Cell 87, 745-756.

Fenard, D., Lambeau, G., Maurin, T., Lefebvre, J. C., and Doglio, A. (2001). A peptide derived from bee venom-secreted phospholipase A2 inhibits replication of T-cell tropic HIV-1 strains via interaction with the CXCR4 chemokine receptor. Mol Pharmacol 60, 341-347.

Feng, Y., Broder, C. C., Kennedy, P. E., and Berger, E. A. (1996). HIV-1 entry cofactor: Functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor. Science 272, 872-877.

Fernandez, E. J., Wilken, J., Thompson, D. A., Peiper, S. C., and Lolis, E. (2000). Comparison of the structure of vMIP-II with eotaxin-1, RANTES, and MCP-3 suggests a unique mechanism for CCR3 activation. Biochemistry 39, 12837-12844.

Fife, B. T. H., Kuziel, W. A., and Karpus, W. J. (2000). CC chemokine receptor 2 is critical for induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med 192, 899-905.

Förster, R., Kremmer, E., Schubel, A., Breitfeld, D., Kleinschmidt, A., Nerl, C., Bernhardt, G., and Lipp, M. (1998). Intracellular and surface expression of the HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4/fusin on various leukocyte subsets: Rapid internalization and recycling upon activation. J Immunol 160, 1522-1531.

Fujii, N. O., Hiramatsu, K., Araki, T., Ueda, S., Tamamura, H., Otaka, A., Kusano, S., Terakubo, S., Nakashima, H., Broach, J. A., Trent, J. O., Wang, Z. X., and Peiper, S. C. (2003). Molecular-size reduction of a potent CXCR4-chemokine antagonist using orthogonal combination of conformation- and sequence-based libraries. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 42, 3251-3253.

Gartner, S. (2000). HIV infection and dementia. Science 287, 602-604.

Gershoni, J. M., Denisova, G., Raviv, D., Smorodinsky, N. I., and Buyaner, D. (1993). HIV binding to its receptor creates specific epitopes for the CD4/gp120 complex. FASEB J 7, 1185-1187.

Gosling, J., Monteclaro, F. S., Atchison, R. E., Arai, H., Tsou, C.-l., Goldsmith, M. A., and Charo, I. F. (1997). Molecular uncoupling of C-C chemokine receptor 5-induced chemotaxis and signal transduction from HIV-1 coreceptor activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 5061-5066.

Grom, A. A. M., Luyrink, L., Emery, H., Passo, M. H., Glass, D. N., Bowlin, T., andEdwards, C. 3rd (1996). Patterns of expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, tumor necrosis factor beta, and their receptors in synovia of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum 39, 1703-1710.

Gu L, T. S., and Rollins, B. J. (1999). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Chem Immunol 72, 7-29.

Gupta, S. K., Pillarisetti, K., Thomas, R. A., and Aiyar, N. (2001). Pharmacological evidence for complex and multiple site interaction of CXCR4 with SDF-1alpha: Implications for development of selective CXCR4 antagonists. Immunol Lett 78, 29-34.

Hartley, O., Gaertner, H., Wilken, J., Thompson, D., Fish, R., Ramos, A., Pastore, C., Dufour, B., Cerini, F., Melotti, A., Heveker, N., Picard, L., Alizon, M., Mosier, D., Kent, S., and Offord, R. (2004). Medicinal chemistry applied to a synthetic protein: Development of highly potent HIV entry inhibitors. Proc Natl AcadSci USA 101, 16460-16465.

He, J., Chen, Y., Farzan, M., Choe, H., Ohagen, A., Gartner, S., Busciglio, J., Yang, X., Hofmann, W., Newman, W., Mackay, C. R., Sodroski, J., and Gabuzda, D. (1997). CCR3 and CCR5 are coreceptors for HIV-1 infection of microglia. Nature 385, 645-649.

Heesen, M., Berman, M. A., Charest, A., Housman, D., Gerard, C., and Dorf, M. E. (1998). Cloning and chromosomal mapping of an orphan chemokine receptor: Mouse RDC1. Immunogenetics 47, 364-370.

Henderson, R., Baldwin, J. M., Ceska, T. A., Zemlin, F., Beckmann, E., and Downing, K. H. (1990). Model for the Structure of Bacteriorhodopsin based on high-resolution electron cryo-microscopy. J Mol Biol 213, 899-929.

Hendrix, C. W. F., MacFarland, R. T., Giandomenico, C., Fuchs, E. J., Redpath, E., Bridger, G., and Henson, G. W. (2000). Pharmacokinetics and safety of AMD-3100, a novel antagonist of the CXCR-4 chemokine receptor, in human volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44, 1667-1673.

Hesselgesser, J., Halks-Miller, M., DelVecchio, V., Peiper, S. C., Hoxie, J., Kolson, D. L., Taub, D., and Horuk, R. (1997). CD4-independent association between HIV-1 gp120 and CXCR4: Functional chemokine receptors are expressed in human neurons. CurrBiol 7, 112-121.

Hesselgesser, J., Taub, D., Baskar, P., Greenberg, M., Hoxie, J., Kolson, D. L., and Horuk, R. (1998). Neuronal apoptosis induced by HIV-1 gp120 and the chemokine SDF-1 alpha is mediated by the chemokine receptor CXCR4. Curr Biol 8, 595-598.

Heveker, N., Montes, M., Germeroth, L., Amara, A., Trautmann, A., Alizon, M., and Schneider-Mergener, J. (1998). Dissociation of the signalling and antiviral properties of SDF-1-derived small peptides. Curr Biol 8, 369-376.

Huang, C., Rajfur, Z., Borchers, C., Schaller, M. D., and Jacobson, K. (2003). JNK phosphorylates paxillin and regulates cell migration. Nature 424, 219-223.

Huang, D. R. W., Kivisakk, P., Rollins, B. J. and Ransohoff, R. M. (2001). Absence of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in mice leads to decreased local macrophage recruitment and antigen-specific T helper cell type 1 immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med 193, 713-726.

Huang, R. R., Vicario, P. P., Strader, C. D., and Fong, T. M. (1995). Identification of residues involved in ligand binding to the neurokinin-2 receptor. Biochemistry 34, 10048-10055.

Huang, Z. (2000). Structural chemistry and therapeutic intervention of protein-protein interaction in immune response, HIV entry and apoptosis. Pharmacol Therapeut 86, 201-215.

Humbles, A. A. L., Friend, D. S., Okinaga, S., Lora, J., Al-Garawi, A., Martin, T. R., Gerard, N. P., and Gerard, C. (2002). The murine CCR3 receptor regulates both the role of eosinophils and mast cells in allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 1479-1484.

Imitola, J., Snyder, E. Y., and Khoury, S. J. (2003). Genetic programs and responses of neural stem/ progenitor cells during demyelination: Potential insights into repair mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. Physiol Genomics 14, 171-197.

Imitola, J., Park, K. I., Teng, Y. D., Nisim, S., Lachyankar, M., Ourednik, J., Mueller, F. J., Yiou, R., Atala, A., Sidman, R. L., Tuszynski, M., Khoury, S. J., and Snyder, E. Y. (2004). Stem cells: Cross-talk and developmental programs. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359, 823-837.

Izikson, L. K., R. S. Charo, I. F. Weiner, H. L. and Luster, A. D. (2000). Resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor (CCR)2. J Exp Med 192, 1075-1080.

Jiang, Y. S., Adhikari, S., Xia, Y., Feng, L., Sonntag, M. K., deFiebre, C. M., Pennell, N. A., Streit, W. J. and Harrison, J. K. (1998). Chemokine receptor expression in cultured glia and rat experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol 86, 1-12.

Jones, S. A., Dewald, B., Clark-Lewis, I., and Baggiolini, M. (1997). Chemokine antagonists that discriminate between interleukin-8 receptors. Selective blockers of CXCR2. J Biol Chem 272, 16166-16169.

Juedes, A. E. H., Bergman, C. M., Neild, A. L. and Ruddle, N. H. (2000). Kinetics and cellular origin of cytokines in the central nervous system: insight into mechanisms of myelin oligodendrocyte glycopro-tein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 164, 419-426.

Kaiser, P. K., Offermann, J. T., and Lipton, S. A. (1990). Neuronal injury due to HIV-1 envelope protein is blocked by anti-gp120 antibodies but not by anti-CD4 antibodies. Neurology 40, 1757-1761.

Kajumo, F., Thompson, D. A., Guo, Y., and Dragic, T. (2000). Entry of R5X4 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains is mediated by negatively charged and tyrosine residues in the amino-terminal domain and the second extracellular loop of CXCR4. Virology 271, 240-247.

Kaul, M., Garden, G. A., and Lipton, S. A. (2001). Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Nature 410, 988-994.

Kaul, M., and Lipton, S. A. (1999). Chemokines and activated macrophages in HIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 8212-8216.

Kennedy, K. J. S., Kunkel, S. L.,Lukacs, N. W., and Karpus, W. J. (1998). Acute and relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are regulated by differential expression of the CC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. J Neuroimmunol 92, 98-108.

Kledal, T. N., Rosenkilde, M. M., Coulin, F., Simmons, G., Johnsen, A. H., Alouani, S., Power, C. A., Luttichau, H. R., Gerstoft, J., Clapham, P. R., Clark-Lewis, I., Wells, T. N. C., and Schwartz, T. W. (1997). A broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Science 277, 1656-1659.

Kobilka, B. (1992). Adrenergic receptors as models for G protein-coupled receptors. Annu Rev Neurosci 15, 87-114.

Kohem, C. L. B., Wisbey, H., Tortorella, C., Lipsky, P. E., andOppenheimer-Marks, N. (1996). Enrichment of differentiated CD45RBdim,CD27-memory T cells in the peripheral blood, synovial fluid, and synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 39, 844-854.

Kontoyianni, M., and Lybrand, T. P. (1993). Computer modeling studies of G protein coupled receptors. Med Chem Res 3, 407-418.

Kumar, S., Choi, W. T., Dong, C. Z., Madani, N., Tian, S., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Pesavento, J., Wang, J., Fan, X., Yuan, J., Fritzsche, W. R., An, J., Sodroski, J. G., Richman, D. D., and Huang, Z. (2006). SMM-Chemokines: A class of unnatural synthetic molecules as chemical probes of chemical receptor biology and leads for therapeutic development. Chem Biol 13, 69-79.

LaBarge, M. A., and Blau, H. M. (2002). Biological progression from adult bone marrow to mononucleate muscle stem cell to multinucleate muscle fiber in response to injury. Cell 111, 589-601.

Lapham, C. K., Ouyang, J., Chandrasekhar, B., Nguyen, N. Y., Dimitrov, D. S., and Golding, H. (1996). Evidence for cell-surface association between fusin and the CD4-gp120. Science 274, 602-605.

Lavi, E., Strizki, J. M., Ulrich, A. M., Zhang, W., Fu, L., Wang, Q., O'Connor, M., Hoxie, J. A., and Gonzalez-Scarano, F. (1997). CXCR-4 (Fusin), a co-receptor for the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), is expressed in the human brain in a variety of cell types, including microglia and neurons. Am J Pathol 151, 1035-1042.

Leckie, M. J. t. B., Khan, J., Diamant, Z. O'Connor, B. J., Walls, C. M., Mathur, A. K., Cowley, H. C., Chung, K. F. Djukanovic, R., Hansel, T. T., Holgate, S. T., Sterk, P. J., and Barnes, P. J. (2000). Effects of an interleukin-5 blocking monoclonal antibody on eosinophils, airway hyper-responsiveness, and the late asthmatic response. Lancet 356, 2144-2148.

Li, G., Gustafson-Brown, C., Hanks, S. K., Nason, K., Arbeit, J. M., Pogliano, K., Wisdom, R. M., and Johnson, R. S. (2003). c-Jun is essential for organization of the epidermal leading edge. Dev Cell 4, 865-877.

Lipton, S. A., and Gendelman, H. E. (1995). Seminars in medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston. Dementia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med. 332, 934-940.

Liwang, A. C., Wang, Z. X., Sun, Y., Peiper, S. C., and Liwang, P. J. (1999). The solution structure of the anti-HIV chemokine vMIP-II. Protein Sci 8, 2270-2280.

Lodi, P. J., Garrett, D. S., Kuszewski, J., Tsang, M. L., Weatherbee, J. A., Leonard, W. J., Gronenborn, A. M., and Clore, G. M. (1994). High-resolution solution structure of the beta chemokine hMIP-1 beta by multidimensional NMR. Science 263, 1762-1767.

Loetscher, P., Gong, J. H., Dewald, B., Baggiolini, M., and Clark-Lewis, I. (1998). N-terminal peptides of stromal cell-derived factor-1 with CXC chemokine receptor 4 agonist and antagonist activities. J Biol Chem 273, 22279-22283.

Lu, Z., Berson, J. F., Chen, Y., Turner, J. D., Zhang, T., Sharron, M., Jenks, M. H., Wang, Z., Kim, J., Rucker, J., Hoxie, J. A., Peiper, S. C., and Doms, R. W. (1997). Evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor usage through interactions with distinct CCR5 and CXCR4 domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 6426-6431.

Luo, J.,Luo, Z., Zhou, N., Hall, J. W., and Huang, Z. (1999a). Attachment of C-terminus of SDF-1 enhances the biological activity of its N-terminal peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 264, 42-47.

Luo, Z., Butcher, D., and Huang, Z. (1997). Molecular modeling of interleukin-8 receptor b and analysis of the receptor-ligand interaction. Protein Eng 10, 1039-1045.

Luo, Z., Zhou, N., Luo, J., Hall, J. W., and Huang, Z. (1999b). The role of positively charged residues in CXCR4 recognition probed with synthetic peptides. Biochem Biophy Res Commun 263, 691-695.

Luo, Z., Fan, X., Zhou, N., Hiraoka, M., Luo, J., Kaji, H., and Huang, Z. (2000). Structure-function study and anti-HIV activity of synthetic peptide analogues derived from viral chemokine vMIP-II. Biochemistry 39, 13545-13550.

Ma, Q., Jones, D., Borghesani, P. R., Segal, R. A., Nagasawa, T., Kishimoto, T., Bronsoni, R. T., and Springer, T. A. (1998). Impaired B-lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and derailed cerebellar neuron migration in CXCR4- and SDF-1-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 9448-9453.

Ma, W. B., Humbles, P. J., Laouini, A. A., Yalcindag, D., Alenius, A., Friend, H., Oettgen, D. S., Gerard, H. C., Geha, C., and R. S. (2002). CCR3 is essential for skin eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic skin inflammation. J Clin Invest 109, 621-628.

Macdonald, D., Murgolo, N., Zhang, R., Durkin, J. P., Yao, X., Strader, C. D., and Graziano, M. P. (2000). Molecular characterization of the melanin-concentrating hormone/receptor complex: Identification of critical residues involved in binding and activation. Mol Pharmacol 58, 217-225.

MacDonald, K. P. N., Lipsky, P. E., and Thomas, R. (1997). Functional CD40 ligand is expressed by T cells in rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest 100, 2404-2414.

Maddon, P. J., Dalgleish, A. G., McDougal, J. S., Clapham, P. R., Weiss, R. A., and Axel, R. (1986). The T4 gene encodes the AIDS virus receptor and is expressed in the immune system and the brain. Cell 47, 333-348.

Mahad, D. J. H., and Woodroofe, M. N. (2002). Expression of chemokines in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 73, 320-303.

McArthur, J. C., Haughey, N., Gartner, S., Conant, K., Pardo, C., Nath, A., and Sacktor, N. (2003). Human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia: An evolving disease. J Neurovirol 9, 205-221.

McManus, C. M., Weidenheim, K., Woodman, S. E., Nunez, J., Hesselgesser, J., Nath, A., and Berman, J. W. (2000). Chemokine and chemokine-receptor expression in human glial elements: induction by the HIV protein, Tat, and chemokine autoregulation. Am J Pathol 156, 1441-1453.

McRae, B. L. K., Tan, L. J. Dal Canto, M. C., Picha, K. S., and Miller, S. D. (1992). Induction of active and adoptive relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) using an encephalitogenic epitope of proteolipid protein. J Neuroimmunol 38, 229-240.

Meucci, O., Fatatis, A., Simen, A. A., Bushell, T. J., Gray, P. W., and Miller, R. J. (1998). Chemokines regulate hippocampal neuronal signaling and gp120 neurotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 1450014505.

Misu, T. O., Fujihara, K., Matsushima, K., Yoshie, O., Okita, N., Takase, S., and Itoyama, Y. (2001). Chemokine receptor expression on T cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid at relapse and remission of multiple sclerosis: Imbalance of Th1/Th2-associated chemokine signaling. J Neuroimmunol 114, 207-212.

Miyagishi, R. K., Takayama, C., Inoue, Y., and Tashiro, K. (1997). Identification of cell types producing RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta in rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by in situ hybridization. J Neuroimmunol 77, 17-26.

Moore, P. S., Boshoff, C., Weiss, R. A., and Chang, Y. (1996). Molecular mimicry of human cytokine and cytokine response pathway genes by KSHV. Science 274, 1739-1744.

Morimoto, C. R., Fox, D. A., Anderson, P., DiMaggio, M., Levine, H., and Schlossman, S. F. (1988). Abnormalities in CD4+ T-lymphocyte subsets in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Am J Med 84, 817-825.

Morita, Y. Y., Kawashima, M., Harada, S., Tsuji, K., Shibuya, K., Maruyama, K., and Makino, H. (1998). Flow cytometric single-cell analysis of cytokine production by CD4+ T cells in synovial tissue and peripheral blood from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 41, 1669-1676.

Murakami, T., Nakajima, T., Koyanagi, Y., Tachibana, K., Fujii, N., Tamamura, H., Yoshida, N., Waki, M., Matsumoto, A., Yoshie, O., Kishimoto, T., Yamamoto, N., and Nagasawa, T. (1997). A small molecule CXCR4 inhibitor that blocks T cell line-tropic HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med 186, 1389-1393.

Murakami, T. Z., Koyanagi, Y., Tanaka, Y., Kim, J., Suzuki, Y., Minoguchi, S., Tamamura, H., Waki, M., Matsumoto, A., Fujii, N., Shida, H., Hoxie, J. A., Peiper, S. C., and Yamamoto, N. (1999). Inhibitory mechanism of the CXCR4 antagonist T22 against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol 73, 7489-7496.

Murphy, P. M. (1994). The molecular biology of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. Annu Rev Immunol 12, 593-633.

Nagasawa, T., Hirota, S., Tachibana, K., Takakura, N., Nishikawa, S., Kitamura, Y., Yoshida, N., Kikutani, H., and Kishimoto, T. (1996). Defects of B-cell lymphopoiesis and bone-marrow myelopoiesis in mice lacking the CXC chemokine PBSF/SDF-1. Nature 382, 635-638.

Nagasawa, T. K., and Kishimoto, T. (1994). Molecular cloning and structure of a pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 2305-2309.

Nanki, T. a. L., P. E. (2000a). Cytokine, activation marker, and chemokine receptor expression by individual CD4(+) memory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. Arthritis Res 2, 415-423.

Nanki, T. H., El-Gabalawy, H. S., Suson, S., Shi, K., Girschick, H. J., Yavuz, S., andLipsky, P. E. (2000b). Stromal cell-derived factor-1-CXC chemokine receptor 4 interactions play a central role in CD4+ T cell accumulation in rheumatoid arthritis synovium. J Immunol 165, 6590-6598.

Nardese, V., Longhi, R., Polo, S., Sironi, F., Arcelloni, C., Paroni, R., DeSantis, C., Sarmientos, P., Rizzi, M., Bolognesi, M., Pavone, V., and Lusso, P. (2001). Structural determinants of CCR5 recognition and HIV-1 blockade in RANTES. Nat Struct Biol 8, 611-615.

Oberlin, E., Amara, A., Bachelerie, F., Bessia, C., Virelizier, J. L., Arenzana-Seisdedos, F., Schwartz, O., Heard, J. M., Clark-Lewis, I., Legler, D. F., Loetscher, M., Baggiolini, M., and Moser, B. (1996). The CXC chemokine SDF-1 is the ligand for LESTR/fusin and prevents infection by T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1. Nature 382, 833-835.

O'Byrne, P. I., and Parameswaran, K. (2001). The trials and tribulations of IL-5, eosinophils, and allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108, 503-508.

Ohagen, A., Ghosh, S., He, J., Huang, K., Chen, Y., Yuan, M., Osathanondh, R., Gartner, S., Shi, B., Shaw, G., and Gabuzda, D. (1999). Apoptosis induced by infection of primary brain cultures with diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates: evidence for a role of the envelope. J Virol 73, 897-906.

Oravecz, T., Pall, M., and Norcross, M. A. (1996). Beta-chemokine inhibition of monocytotropic HIV-1 infection. Interference with a postbinding fusion step. J Immunol 157, 1329-1332.

Park, K. I., Ourednik, J., Ourednik, V., Taylor, R. M., Aboody, K. S., Auguste, K. I., Lachyankar, M. B., Redmond, D. E., and Snyder, E. Y. (2002a). Global gene and cell replacement strategies via stem cells. GeneTher 9,613-624.

Park, K. I., Teng, Y. D., and Snyder, E. Y. (2002b). The injured brain interacts reciprocally with neural stem cells supported by scaffolds to reconstitute lost tissue. Nat Biotechnol 20, 1111-1117.

Parolin, C., Borsetti, A., Choe, H., Farzan, M., Kolchinsky, P., Heesen, M., Ma, Q., Gerard, C., Palu, G., Dorf, M. E., Springer, T., and Sodroski, J. (1998). Use of murine CXCR-4 as a second receptor by some T-cell-tropic human immunodeficiency viruses. J Virol 72, 1652-1656.

Picard, L., Simmons, G., Power, C. A., Meyer, A., Weiss, R. A., and Clapham, P. R. (1997a). Multiple extracellular domains of CCR-5 contribute to human immunodefiency virus type 1 entry and fusion. J Virol 71,5003-5011.

Picard, L., Wilkinson, D. A., McKnight, A., Gray, P. W., Hoxie, J. A., Clapham, P. R., and Weiss, R. A. (1997b). Role of the amino-terminal extracellular domain of CXCR-4 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry. Virology 231, 105-111.

Plesoff, O., Sol, N., Labrosse, B., and Alizon, M. (1997). Human immunodeficiency virus strains differ in their ability to infect CD4+ cells expressing the rat homolog of CXCR-4 (fusin). J Virol 71, 3259-3262.

Poignard, P., Saphire, E. O., Parren, P. W., and Burton, D. R. (2001). gp120: Biologic aspects of structural features. Annu Rev Immunol 19, 253-274.

Ponath, P. D. Q., Post, T. W., Wang, J., Wu, L., Gerard, N. P., Newman, W., Gerard, C., and Mackay, C. R. (1996). Molecular cloning and characterization of a human eotaxin receptor expressed selectively on eosinophils. J Exp Med 183, 2437-2448.

Proudfoot, A. (2002). Chemokine receptors: Multifaceted therapeutic targets. Nat Rev/Immunol 2, 106-115.

Rottman, J. B., Ganley, K. P., Williams, K., Wu, L., Mackay, C. R., and Ringler, D. J. (1997). Cellular localization of the chemokine receptor CCR5. Correlation to cellular targets of HIV-1 infection. Am J Pathol 151, 1341-1351.

Rucker, J., Samson, M., Doranz, B. J., Libert, F., Berson, J. F., Yi, Y., Smyth, R. J., Collman, R. G., Broder, C. C., Vassart, G., Doms, R. W., and Parmentier, M. (1996). Regions in beta-chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR2b that determine HIV-1 cofactor specificity. Cell 87, 437-446.

Sachpatzidis, A., Benton, B. K., Manfredi, J. P., Wang, H., Hamilton, A., Dohlman, H. G., and Lolis, E. (2003). Identification of allosteric peptide agonists of CXCR4. J Biol Chem 278, 896-907.

Sallusto, F. M., and Lanzavecchia, A. (1997). Selective expression of the eotaxin receptor CCR3 by human T helper 2 cells. Science 277, 2005-2007.

Samson, M., Libert, F., Doranz, B. J., Rucker, J., Liesnard, C., Farber, C. M., Saragosti, S., Lapoumeroulie, C., Cognaux, J., Forceille, C., Muyldermans, G., Verhofstede, C., Burtonboy, G., Georges, M., Imai, T., Rana, S., Yi, Y., Smyth, R. J., Collman, R. G., Doms, R. W., Vassart, G., and Parmentier, M. (1996). Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene. Nature 382, 722-725.

Sanders, V. J., Pittman, C. A., White, M. G., Wang, G., Wiley, C. A., and Achim, C. L. (1998). Chemokines and receptors in HIV encephalitis. AIDS 12, 1021-1026.

Sattentau, Q. J., Moore, J. P., Vignaux, F., Traincard, F., and Poignard, P. (1993). Conformational changes induced in the envelope glycoproteins of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses by soluble receptor binding. J Virol 67, 7383-7393.

Schellekens, P. T., Tersmette, M., Roos, M. T., Keet, R. P., de Wolf, F., Coutinho, R. A., and Miedema, F. (1992). Biphasic rate of CD4+ cell count decline during progression to AIDS correlates with HIV-1 phenotype. AIDS 6, 665-669.

Schols, D., Struyf, S., van Damme, J., Este, J. A., Henson, G., and De Clercq, E. (1997). Inhibition of T-tropic HIV strains by selective antagonization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. J Exp Med 186, 1383-1388.

Schwarz, M. K. W., (2002). New therapeutics that modulate chemokine networks. Nat Rev Drug Discov 1, 347-358.

Sharma, G. D., He, J., and Bazan, H. E. (2003). p38 and ERK1/2 coordinate cellular migration and proliferation in epithelial wound healing: Evidence of cross-talk activation between MAP kinase cascades. J Biol Chem 278, 21989-21997.

Siciliano, S. J., Rollins, T. E., DeMartino, J., Konteatis, Z., Malkowitz, L., Riper, G. V., Bondy, S., Rosen, H., and Springer, M. S. (1994). Two-site binding of C5aby its receptor: An alternative binding paradigm for G protein-coupled receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 1214-1218.

Simmons, G., Wilkinson, D., Reeves, J. D., Dittmar, M. T., Beddows, S., and Weber, J. (1996). Primary, syncytium-inducing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates are dual-tropic and most can use either Lestr or CCR5 as coreceptors for virus entry. J Virol 70, 8355-8360.

Simmons, G., Clapham, P. R., Picard, L., Offord, R. E., Rosenkilde, M. M., Schwartz, T., Buser, R., Wells, T. N. C., and E., P. A. (1997). Potent inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages and lymphocytes by a novel CCR5 antagonist. Science 276, 276-279.

Simpson, J. E. N., Cuzner, M. L. and Woodroofe, M. N. (1998). Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and other beta-chemokines by resident glia and inflammatory cells in multiple sclerosis lesions. J Neuroimmunol 84, 238-249.

Simpson, J. R., Newcombe, J., Cuzner, M. L., Male, D., and Woodroofe, M. N. (2000). Expression of the beta-chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR3 and CCR5 in multiple sclerosis central nervous system tissue. J Neuroimmunol 108, 192-200.

Smeets, T. J. D.,Miltenburg, A. M., deKuiper, R., Breedveld, F. C., andTak, P. P. (1998). Poor expression of T cell-derived cytokines and activation and proliferation markers in early rheumatoid synovial tissue. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 88, 84-90.

Snyder, E. Y., Yoon, C., Flax, J. D., and Macklis, J. D. (1997). Multipotent neural precursors can differentiate toward replacement of neurons undergoing targeted apoptotic degeneration in adult mouse neocortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 94, 11663-11668.

Sorensen, T. L. S., F. (2001). Distinct chemokine receptor and cytokine expression profile in secondary progressive MS. Neurology 57, 1371-1376.

Sorensen, T. L. T., Kivisakk, P., Klaege, K. L., Majmudar, A., Ravid, R., Lassmann, H., Olsen, D. B., Strieter, R. M., Ransohoff, R. M., and Sellebjerg, F. (2002). Multiple sclerosis: A study of CXCL10 and CXCR3 co-localization in the inflamed central nervous system. J Neuroimmunol 127, 59-68.

Sozzani, S., Luini, W., Bianchi, G., Allavena, P., Wells, T. N. C., Napolitano, M., Bernardini, G., Vecchi, A., D'Ambrosio, D., Sinigagli, F., Santoni, A., Maggi, E., Romagnani, S., and Mantovani, A. (1998). The viral chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-II is a selective Th2 chemoattractant. Blood 92, 4036-4039.

Strader, C. D., Fong, T. M., Tota, M. R., and Underwood, D. (1994). Structure and function of G proteincoupled receptors. Annu Rev Biochem 63, 101-132.

Suzuki, Y., Rahman, M., and Mitsuya, H. (2001). Diverse transcriptional response of CD4(+) T cells to stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1: Cell survival promotion and priming effects of SDF-1 on CD4(+) T cells. J Immunol 167, 3064-3073.

Tachibana, K., Hirota, S., Iizasa, H., Yoshida, H., Kawabata, K., Kataoka, Y., Kitamura, Y., Matsushima, K., Yoshida, N., Nishikawa, S., Kishimoto, T., and Nagasawa, T. (1998). The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract. Nature 393, 591-594.

Tamamura, H., Xu, Y., Hattori, T., Zhang, X., Arakaki, R., Kanbara, K., Omagari, A., Otaka, A., Ibuka, T., Yamamoto, N., Nakashima, H., and Fujii, N. (1998). A low-molecular-weight inhibitor against the chemo-kine receptor CXCR4: A strong anti-HIV peptide T140. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 253, 877-882.

Tashiro, K. T., Heilker, R., Shirozu, M., and Nakano, T., and Honjo, T. (1993). Signal sequence trap: A cloning strategy for secreted proteins and type I membrane proteins. Science 261, 600-603.

Tersmette, M., Lange, J. M., de Goede, R. E., de Wolf, F., Eeftink-Schattenkerk, J. K., Schellekens, P. T., Coutinho, R. A., Huisman, J. G., Goudsmit, J., andMiedema, F. (1989). Association between biological properties of human immunodeficiency virus variants and risk for AIDS and AIDS mortality. Lancet. 1, 983-985.

Tian, S., Choi, W. T., Liu, D., Pesavento, J., Wang, Y., An, J., Sodroski, J. G., and Huang, Z. (2005). Distinct functional sites for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and stromal cell-derived factor 1a on CXCR4 transmembrane helical domains. J Virol 79, 12667-12673.

Trkola, A., Dragic, T., Arthos, J., Binley, J. M., Olson, W. C., Allaway, G. P., Cheng-Mayer, C., Robinson, J., Maddon, P. J., and Moore, J. P. (1996). CD4-dependent, antibody-sensitive interactions between HIV-1 and its co-receptor CCR-5. Nature 384, 184-187.

Trotter, J. L., Clark, H. B., Collins, K. G., Wegeschiede, C. L., and Scarpellini, J. D. (1987). Myelin proteolipid protein induces demyelinating disease in mice. J Neurol Sci 79, 173-188.

Wang, Z. X., Berson, J. F., Zhang, T. Y., Cen, Y. H., Sun, Y., Sharron, M., Lu, Z. H., and Peiper, S. C. (1998). CXCR4 sequences involved in coreceptor determination of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 tropism. Unmasking of activity with M-tropic Env glycoproteins. J Biol Chem 273, 15007-15015.

Wells, T. N. C., Power, C. A., Lusti-Narasimhan, M., Hoogewert, A. J., Cooke, R. M., Chung, C.-W., Peitsch, M. C., and Proudfoot, A. E. I. (1996). Selectivity and antagonism of chemokine receptors. JLeuk Biol 59, 53-60.

Wong, E. V., Schaefer, A. W., Landreth, G., and Lemmon, V. (1996). Involvement of p90rsk in neurite outgrowth mediated by the cell adhesion molecule L1. J Biol Chem 271, 18217-18223.

Wu, L., Gerard, N. P., Wyatt, R., Choe, H., Parolin, C., Ruffing, N., Borsetti, A., Cardoso, A. A., Desjardin, E., Newman, W., Gerard, C., and Sodroski, J. (1996). CD4-induced interaction of primary HIV-1 gp120 glycoproteins with the chemokine receptor CCR-5. Nature 6605, 179-183.

Xia, M. Q. Q., Wu, L. J., Mackay, C. R., and Hyman, B. T. (1998). Immunohistochemical study of the beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 and their ligands in normal and Alzheimer's disease brains. Am J Pathol 153, 31-37.

Xu, Y. T., Arakaki, R., Nakashima, H., Zhang, X., Fujii, N., Uchiyama, T., and Hattori, T. (1999). Marked increase in anti-HIV activity, as well as inhibitory activity against HIV entry mediated by CXCR4, linked to enhancement of the binding ability of tachyplesin analogs to CXCR4. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 15, 419-427.

Youssef, S. W., Maor, G., Lanir, N., Gour-Lavie, A., Grabie, N., and Karin, N. (1998). Long-lasting protective immunity to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis following vaccination with naked DNA encoding C-C chemokines. J Immunol 161, 3870-3879.

Zhang, L., Huang, Y., He, T., Cao, Y., and Ho, D. D. (1996). HIV-1 subtype and second-receptor use. Nature 383, 768.

Zhou, N., Luo, Z., Hall, J. W., Luo, J., Han, X., and Huang, Z. (2000a). Molecular modeling and site-directed muagenesis of CCR5 reveal residues critical for chemokine binding and signal transduction. Eur J Immunol 30, 164-173.

Zhou, N., Luo, Z., Luo, J., Hall, J. W., and Huang, Z. (2000b). A novel peptide antagonist of CXCR4 derived from the N-terminus of the viral chemokine vMIP-II. Biochemistry 39, 3782-3787.

Zhou, N., Luo, Z., Luo, J., Liu, D., Hall, J. W., Pomerantz, R. J., and Huang, Z. (2001). Structural and functional characterization of human CXCR4 as a chemokine receptor and HIV-1 co-receptor by mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies. J Biol Chem 276, 42826-42833.

Zhou, N., Luo, Z., Luo, J., Fan, X., Cayabyab, M., Hiraoka, M., Liu, D., Han, X., Pesavento, J., Dong, C. Z., Wang, Y., An, J., Kaji, H., Sodroski, J. G., and Huang, Z. (2002). Exploring the stereochemistry of CXCR4-peptide recognition and inhibiting HIV-1 entry with D-peptides derived from chemokines. J Biol Chem 277, 17476-17485.

Zlotnik, A. Y. (2000). Chemokines: A new classification system and their role in immunity. Immunity 12, 121.

Zou, Y., Kottmann, A., Kuroda, M., Taniuchi, I., and Littman, D. (1998). Function of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in haematopoiesis and in cerebellar development. Nature 393, 595-599.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Arthritis Relief Now

Arthritis Relief Now

When you hear the word arthritis, images of painful hands and joints comes into play. Few people fully understand arthritis and this guide is dedicated to anyone suffering with this chronic condition and wants relief now.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment