RANTES, MIP-1a, MIP-1P
intracellular biological pathways via heterotrimeric G-proteins (Kobilka, 1992; Murphy, 1994; Strader et al., 1994). As the natural ligands of chemokine receptors, chemokines are small soluble proteins of about 70 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 8-10 kDa. They play prominent roles in leukocyte activation and trafficking to sites of inflammation by interacting with chemokine receptors. Based on the positions of two conserved cysteine residues in their amino (N)-termini, chemokines can be divided into four subfamilies: CC, CXC, CX3C, and C (Berger et al., 1999; Murphy, 1994). The two main subfamilies of chemokines are CXC and CC (Table 12.1). They are important for the selective activation and recruitment of a large variety of cell types in inflammation. CXC chemokines are primarily involved in the activation of neutrophils, whereas CC chemokines do not affect neutrophils and generally stimulate other leukocytes such as monocytes, lymphocytes, and basophils. In addition to important roles in many physiological processes, chemokines are implicated in a wide range of human acute and chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., acute respiratory distress syndrome, allergic asthma, psoriasis, and arthritis), neurological disorders, cancer, and most notably acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Baggiolini et al., 1997; Berger et al., 1999; Murphy, 1994; Proudfoot, 2002) (Table 12.2).
Was this article helpful?
Did You Know That Herbs and Spices Have Been Used to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis Successfully for Thousands of Years Do you suffer with rheumatoid arthritis Would you like to know which herbs and spices naturally reduce inflammation and pain 'Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis with Herbs, Spices and Roots' is a short report which shows you where to start.