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Cadaver tracheal graft, 843 Cafe coronary syndrome, 708 Calcification interfering with suture placement, 537 Calcified subcarinal lymph nodes, 367f Carbon dioxide laser, 719-720 hemangiomas, 727 papillomas, 729, 730f respiratory papillomatosis, 728 subglottic stenoses, 725, 727 Carcinoid tumors, 77, 150-151, 216, C2, C13

atypical, 150

radiography of, 152f bronchoscopy of, 216f computed tomography of, 218f Cardiac catheterization in children, 190 Cardiopulmonary bypass, 13, 676, 6340 carinal reconstruction, 600 resection, 460 Carina extended resection of, 605-606 laryngotracheoesophageal cleft bronchoscopy, 676f structure of, 39 Carinal adenocarcinoma children, 216 Carinal lesions reconstruction complications of, 485, 486t surgical approach to, 513-516 Carinal level, 47 Carinal obstruction from tumor relief of, 477f-478f Carinal pneumonectomy, 12-13, 609f for bronchogenic carcinoma, 266 Carinal reconstruction, 8-11, 599-616 anesthesia, 463-469, 600 approach to, 599-601 with pulmonary resection, 607-616 resection, 600-601

without pulmonary resection, 601-616, 601f

Carinal resection, 8-11, 601f-602f, 603f, 608f anesthesia, 463-469 anesthetic challenge of, 10 for bronchogenic carcinoma, 264-266 individualized reconstruction after, 615, 616f intubation and ventilation for, 464f-466f left pneumonectomy, 610-612, 611f pneumonectomy, 608-610 via right thoracotomy, 10-11 Carinal stenoses of unknown origin, 378f Carinal Y stents, 782, C10 Carrot in bronchus, 711f Cartilage patch, 27 Cartilaginous tumors, 89-90

vs. hamartomas, 220-221 Castleman's disease, 411 Caustic substances, 288-289 Cellulitis delaying resection, 447

Central airway obstruction management of, 777f Central posterior tumor, 564f-565f Cervical esophageal stenosis, 809f Cervical exenteration postcricoidal esophageal carcinoma, 682 Cervical incision cervicomediastinal exenteration mediastinal tracheostomy, 683-684 for extended tracheal resection, 511f with preexisting stoma, 510f Cervical injury, 272

Cervical laryngotracheal blunt trauma, 273f

Cervical spine injury airway assessment and establishment, 279 Cervical trachea cutaneous-platysmal tube, 659f fluoroscopy of, 107-108 granular cell myoblastoma of, 145f laser, 722

normal anatomy of, 103-106 separation of, 280f stomal stenosis of computed tomography of, 123f Cervical tracheal injuries acute, 633f clinical characteristics of, 276 Cervical tracheal stenosis exposure of, 523f radiography of, 122f Cervical trauma repair of, 631-639 Cervical vertebrae subluxation of, 272 Cervicomediastinal exenteration, 15-16 mediastinal tracheostomy, 681-692 final result, 691f operation, 683-684 operative field, 686f reconstruction, 688-691 resection, 685-686 omentum, 806 for thyroid cancer, 258 Cervicomediastinothoracic resection, 594 Check valve phenomenon, 70 Chemodectoma, 94 Chest radiographs stents, 775 Chest trauma dyspnea after, 284f Chicken bone in larynx, 126f Children acquired lesions, 187-190 adenocarcinoma in, 189f anastomosis in, 196 assessment of, 190-193 bronchial resection in, 434 bronchogenic cyst in, 189f carinal adenocarcinoma, 216 extrinsic lesions in, 188 foreign bodies, 708 fistula from, 348f near-normal chest x-ray, 713f granuloma in from tracheostomy tube, 319f hemangiomas in, 188 imaging in, 190-191 lesions, 25-26

non-operative treatment of, 195-196 pneumonectomy in, 190 pneumothorax during tracheostomy, 295 postintubation stenoses, 187-190 postintubation tracheoesophageal fistula in, 188 postpneumonectomy syndrome, 113-116

recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in, 188

respiratory obstruction following extubation, 303 rigid bronchoscope, 292f squamous papilloma, 74 subglottic laryngotracheal stenosis repair of, 197 thymic cyst in, 189f trachea in, 45f resection and reconstruction of,

196-197 wall of, 43 tracheal dimensions of, 40, 43t tracheostomy in, 188, 297-299

vs. silicone T tube, 195 tracheostomy tube, 298f treatment of, 193-203 tumors in, 188 Vicryl sutures in, 534 Choke point, 63 Chondroblastomas, 90, 220, C6

radiography of, 224f Chondromas, 89, 138-139, 220 benign computed tomography of, 222f-223f of larynx computed tomography of, 144f Chondrosarcomas, 90, 220, C9, C13 computed tomography of, 154f of larynx, 221f lateral laryngotracheal excision for, 566f radiography of, 154f

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 69 associated with malacia, 398 deformation in, 42 expiratory collapse with, 645-649 flow volume loop (FVL), 63f, 69f upper airway obstruction, 67-70 Chronic tracheal injuries repair of, 641-643 Cicatricial stenosis, 371 anesthesia, 472 dilation, 472-475 urgent treatment of, 471-475 Circumferential subglottic stenosis, 557-561 from endotracheal tube injury, 559f-560f laryngotracheal anastomosis after resection, 561f-562f Circumferential wrap, 594

of intercostal muscle, 577 Cisplatin, 796 Clagett procedure, 808, 825 Clamshell incision, 11 Clamshell thoracotomy, 599 Clothes line injuries, 633f Cocoanut Grove fire, 286 Collagen injection, 705 Collar incisions, 594 for anterior tracheal reconstruction,

521, 522f for benign tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) repair, 570-571, 574 for cutaneous tube reconstruction, 658 for esophageal bypass, 578f for malignant tracheoesophageal fistula

(TEF) repair, 577 for postintubation tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), 510 for upper trachea approach, 509f Colon carcinoma, 83 Combined cervical tracheal and esophageal rupture from blunt injury, 638f Communi-Trach I, 740 Complete laryngotracheoesophageal cleft, 27 Complete sternotomy, 511f Complex stenosis tracheobronchogram, 672f Computed tomography, 108-110 for bronchogenic carcinoma, 263 for thyroid carcinoma, 251 Concurrent tracheostomy, 336 Conforming stent, 700f, 702f Congenital abnormalities, 111-113 Congenital bronchial stenosis, 177 Congenital bronchoesophageal fistula (BEF), 175-176, 352-354

classification of, 352f clinical presentation and diagnosis of, 352 contrast esophagogram of, 353f thoracotomy of, 353f treatment of, 353-354 Congenital fistula between biliary and respiratory tracts, 175

Congenital H-type esophagobronchial fistula barium enema of, 156f radiography of, 156f Congenital H-type tracheoesophageal fistula, 194f Congenital malformations, 25-26,174-187

tracheostomy for, 297-299 Congenital stenosis atypical, C11

with circular O rings, 193,193f magnetic resonance imaging of, 192f resection and reconstruction of, 203 slide tracheoplasty for radiography of, 200f treatment of, 197-203 Congenital tracheal lesions anastomosis, 671

anterior patch tracheoplasty, 665-668 repair of, 665-674 resection and reconstruction, 665 slide tracheoplasty, 668-671 Congenital tracheal stenosis, 27, 42, 177-179, 178f, C11 clinical presentation of, 190 with complete cartilage rings, 179f computed tomography of, 114f imaging of, 112

with irregular, confluent cartilage plates, 180f with left pulmonary artery sling, 181f resection and reconstruction, 666f surgical techniques for, 198f Congenital tracheal stenosis imaging of, 191f

Congenital tracheobronchial malacia, C12 Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula, 342 Congenital tracheomalacia, 181,183f, 397 Congenital vascular anomalies, 413-414

imaging of, 112-113 Congenital vascular rings, 183,184t, 185f Connell sutures, 574f Constant positive airway pressure (CPAP) carinal resection and reconstruction, 463 Continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART), 800 Contrast esophagography for mechanical injury, 279

Conus elasticus, 44f Coolidge, Algernon, 707 Cooper, Joel D., 24f Coring technique removing obstructed airway tumors, 476-478 Coronary artery disease following resection, 491 Corticosteroids, 332, 379, 450

contraindicating bronchoplasty, 620 Cough palliation of, 794 on swallowing, 276 Couraud, Louis, 16f CPAP, 463

Crawford, E. Stanley, 496 Cricoarytenoid arthritis, 696 Cricoid cartilage, 42, 44f bronchoscopy of, 166, 167f embryology of, 173 Cricoid fracture, 273f Cricoid pressure, 457 Cricoid resection, 14 Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, 705 Cricothyroid muscle anatomy of, 693 Cricothyroidotomy, 293, 294

stenosis and granuloma at, 308f Cricothyrotomy as emergency tracheostomy, 698 Crushing chest injuries, 639-641 Crush injuries of bronchi, 274 Cuff design of, 738 Cuffed fenestrated tracheostomy tube, 741f

Cuff stenosis, 123, 124f, 309, 312f, 313 avoidance of, 500

computed tomography of, 125f, 126f evolution of, 313f experimental production of, 317f photomicrography of, 316f prevention of, 320-325 Cuff volume, 323 Cutaneous incision for extended tracheal resection, 511f Cutaneous-platysmal tube cervical trachea, 659f Cutaneous tracheal replacement, 660f Cutaneous tube completion of, 661f reconstruction, 662f of trachea, 658-663 Cutis laxa, 154 Cyclophosphamide, 379, 796

Cylindroma, 9,19, 80 Cysts, 141, 408-410

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