The Natural Thyroid Diet

Thyroid Factor

Thyroid Factor is a program that was created by Dawn Sylvester to help women deal with thyroid issues. Dawn Sylvester is a 57 years old lady that has worked with 1,000's of real women. She has over the time tried to investigate the underlying reason why majority of women lose energy and also struggle with belly fat and fatigue as they age. It is a comprehensive program thatcomprises of Thyro pause, 11 kinds of thyroid saving foods that will work to help you boost fat burning Free T3. The program also teaches you all the hidden causes of thyroid which are making you fat and later a highly reliable Thyroid reboot plan which is an excellent plan you need to tackle your weight. Additionally, there are tips to reduce bulging fat fast and eventually obtain a healthy body. You also get several bonuses all aimed at helping you solve all the problems that comes with being overweight. The three bonuses you get are 21 Day Thyroid weight loss system, 101 Thyroid boosting foods and Thyroid Jumpstart Guide. More here...

Thyroid Factor Summary


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Graves disease autoimmune hyperthyroidism

Graves' disease results from auto-antibodies that develop against the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor on thyroid cell membranes. Interestingly, binding of these antibodies with TSH receptors do not result in destruction of either the receptors or the cells, but instead cause long-term stimulation of the thyroid with the development of a goitre, Figure 11.14. Auto-immune destruction of the thyroid gland and joints of the hands (a) shows the characteristic woody appearance of a goitre removed from a patient with Hashimoto's disease and (b) the hands of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Figure 11.14. Auto-immune destruction of the thyroid gland and joints of the hands (a) shows the characteristic woody appearance of a goitre removed from a patient with Hashimoto's disease and (b) the hands of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. excessive production of thyroxine hormones and the clinical syndrome of hyperthyroidism. The treatment is to suppress thyroid cell function by...

Hashimoto Thyroiditis

Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (Hashimoto) is an autoimmune disease closely related to Graves disease 49 . It was first described by Hashimoto 50 in 1912. Although lymphocyte and cytokine-mediated thyroid destruction predominates in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), antibody-mediated thyroid stimulation occurs in Graves disease and overlap may occur in some patients. HT arises from a combination of genetic traits that heighten susceptibility in conjunction with some environmental trigger. HT occurs in 1 of children and adolescents and is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism in the pediatric population 51 . The disease has a predilection for females 4 to 7 times and a family history is present in 30-40 of patients. The prevalence increases with age with the common age of adolescence 52 . HT accounts for many of the enlarged thyroids formerly designated as adolescent or simple goiter 53 . Goiter is present in two thirds of children, resulting from lymphocytic infiltration and...

Thyroid Disease in Older Individuals

In this chapter, we explore how thyroid disease manifests in people older than sixty, when people can be managing a number of conditions, including heart disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, as well as neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's. In 1886, the physician Victor Horsley put forth the theory that the aged face was actually a hypothyroid face, leading many physicians of his day to conclude that thyroid disease was a disease of the aged. The fact is that about 4 to 7 percent of people older than sixty are definitely hypothyroid, but it's suspected that a much greater percentage of people have subclinical hypothyroidism after age sixty that frequently goes unrecognized and untreated. Meanwhile, less than 1 percent of people older than sixty suffer from hyperthyroidism. In either case, the symptoms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are different in older people, and do not manifest in the same ways as they do in a younger person.

Can Underactive Thyroid Cause Oligoovulation

Environmental Causes Amenorrhea

Illness such as poorly controlled diabetes, childhood rheumatoid arthritis and malabsorptive bowel disease may affect gonadotropin production and result in delayed menarche. Starvation as seen in eating disorders is a profound stress to the body. Anorexia nervosa usually presents after menarche and represents a significant life-threatening condition that may initially be noticed secondary to amenorrhea. Neuropeptide Y, a peptide produced in the arcuate nucleus, normally stimulates feeding behavior however, when elevated in anorexia nervosa, it inhibits GnRH secretion. Weight gain restores gonadotropin production, but normal menses do not always ensue. Similar to anorexia, extreme exercise especially prior to menarche may delay puberty. A reduction in body fat below a critical level and an increase in energy expenditure trigger a decrease in leptin levels. Lower leptin levels can suppress reproductive and thyroid functions and increase adrenal activity. Both patients with anorexia and...

The Hypothalamuspituitarythyroid Axis

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) TSH receptors (TSHR) are present in B and T cells, NK cells, monocytes and at high levels in dendritic cells (DC). TSHR are not detectable on foetal and neonatal immune cells. TSH significantly stimulated IL-2 and IL-12, IL-1 3 responses and enhanced the phagocytic activity of DCs from adult animals, enhanced the proliferative response of murine spleen cells to IL-2, significantly increased IL-2 induced NK cell cytotoxicity and enhanced the expression of MHC-II by human thyroid epithelial cells 149,152-156 , In bone marrow cells IL-6, IFN(3, TNFa, TNF 3, TGF 32, and lymphotoxin- 3 responses were reproducibly induced by TSH 158 , Lymphocytes and monocytes synthesize TSH 149,158 , Lymphocytes and monocytes express nuclear receptors for both T3 and T4. Human lymphocytes convert T4 to biologically active T3. T3 regulates sodium exchange and glucose uptake in lymphocytes, stimulates thymus growth and hormone production, and promotes erythroid burst...

Thyroidspecific antigens Thyroglobulin

Thyroglobulin autoantibodies can be demonstrated by several procedures, such as precipitation in agar, IIF, indirect hemagglutination of cells coated with thyroglobulin, RIA and ELISA. At present, hemagglutination is the most commonly employed technique for the detection of antibodies against thyroglobulin. The ELISA is increasingly used for the measurement of antibodies to thyroglobulin and will additionally detect antibodies that are nonagglutinating. Thyroglobulin antibodies are found in individuals with chronic thyroiditis, myxedema, Graves disease, goiter, thyroid tumors and other polyendocrine disorders. The highest titers are found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders. Low titers of thyroglobulin antibodies may be found in normal individuals. The prevalence of such antibodies in subjects without overt thyroid disease is higher in women. The incidence also increases with age, so that 18 of women over 40 years old may have antibodies to thyroglobulin. Total thyroglobulin...

Hyperthyroidism DRG CategoT 300

I I yperthyroidism is a condition caused by excessive overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. The thyroid hormones (triidothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4 ), produced in the thyroid gland under the control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), regulate the body's metabolism. Sustained thyroid hormone overproduction, therefore, causes a hypermetabolic state that affects most of the body organs, such as the heart, gastrointestinal tract, brain, muscles, eyes, and skin. The seriousness of the disease depends on the degree of hypersecretion of the thyroid hormones. As the levels of thyroid hormones rise, the risk of life-threatening cardiac problems becomes progressively greater. The most common form of hyperthyroidism is called Graves' disease or thyrotoxicosis. Graves' disease is associated with hyperthyroidism, eye disorders, and skin disorders, and when uncontrolled, vital organs are stressed to their capacity. It is also associated with many autoimmune diseases such as...

Measuring Thyroid Antibodies

The body has an immune system that is important to help it fight infectious diseases. There are several parts of the immune system, but the portions of the body responsible for this are the white blood cells. Some kinds of white blood cells, neutrophils, engulf bacteria and viruses. Other white blood cells, lymphocytes, make and release special proteins called antibodies that are tailor-made to stick to specific types of invading bacteria or viruses. Sometimes, some of the lymphocytes get mixed up and make antibodies that target parts of your own body. When this causes an illness, it is called an autoimmune (self-immune) disease. If the antibodies target the joints, this causes rheumatoid arthritis. If the antibodies target the muscles, this causes myasthenia gravis. Antibodies that target the thyroid can cause thyroid disease. There are three major kinds of antithyroid antibodies. Antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies used to be called anti-microsomal antibodies. TPO antibodies...

The Most Common Problem

Being hypothyroid is one of the most common health problems in North America. The term means that you don't have enough thyroid hormone in your body to function normally. Usually this is because the thyroid gland is underactive and is not making enough thyroid hormone for your body's requirements. Hypothyroidism can be mild, moderate, or severe. People most at risk for hypothyroidism are women, older individuals (over sixty), those with a family history of thyroid disease, or those with other autoimmune diseases (such as pernicious anemia, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus). If you've been diagnosed with a thyroid disorder of any kind, you will probably experience hypothyroidism at some point because the treatments for other thyroid conditions usually result in hypothyroidism (quite deliberately). This chapter explains the many possible causes of hypothyroidism, the symptoms of hypothyroidism, and treatment with thyroid hormone. It also discusses the many conditions that...

Other Autoimmune Disorders

Probably the bulk of immunologically related studies in children and adolescents with autoimmune thyroid disease have addressed the frequency of association with other autoimmune disorders, especially type 1 diabetes melli-tus. Although there are few lessons to be gleaned from such reports in a narrow immunological sense, given the fact that all such disorders share similar genetic susceptibility factors, there are clear implications for screening, which in turn frequently leads to questions over the utility of TG and TPO antibody testing. The effectiveness of screening strategies for measuring non-thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease has been reviewed recently 49 . Major difficulties in such association studies concern adequate population size and inclusion of suitably matched contemporary controls. In attempting to establish baseline frequencies for thyroid antibodies in the healthy population it is clear that age is crucial, since in females, but not males, the...

Immunological and Hormonal Aspects of Normal Pregnancy

Sex steroids are powerful negative regulators of B cell activity. Oestrogen alone is effective in reducing B cell lymphopoiesis in pregnancy. Although progesterone is not effective on its own, it reduced the amount of oestrogen required for suppression by up to 90 in a mouse pregnancy model. The high concentrations of oestrogen produced in normal pregnancy almost certainly contribute to the fall in autoantibody levels observed in pregnant patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Despite the fall in autoantibodies, there are no significant changes reported in the number of B cells in the circulation in normal human pregnancy. While progesterone may favour Th2 cells, evidence has indicated that oestrogen delivers a negative signal to B cell function during pregnancy and this showed a slow reversal in the postpartum period. In keeping with these observations, autoantibody titres and inflammation fall throughout pregnancy as observed in all autoimmune diseases investigated 17 ....

Graves Disease

Graves' disease is the most common cause of spontaneously occurring thyrotoxicosis, accounting for 60-90 of all cases. Graves' disease also referred to as Basedow's disease or Parry's disease, is an autoimmune disorder with a genetic predisposition that typically affects young women 20-40 years of age. The female to male ratio varies from 4 1 to 10 1. Graves' disease has been linked to certain HLA haplotypes, HLA B8 and HLA DR3 in Caucasian populations, HLA BW35 in the Japanese and HLA BW46 in Chinese populations. It frequently occurs in association with other autoimmune diseases such as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome, vitiligo, pernicious anemia, Type I diabetes mellitus, lupus erythematosis, Addison's disease, myasthenia gravis and idiopathic thrombocytope-nia purpura.2 The specific cause of Graves' disease is unknown. Much of the current research has been directed at the characterization of the autoimmune reaction and determining its...


Some people with Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis experience tendon and joint inflammation. Painful tendonitis and bursitis of the shoulder, for example, was reported in a greater number of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, compared to the general population. This is likely to be consequent to untreated hypothyroidism, present in many Hashimoto's patients before thyroid hormone therapy and in Graves' disease patients after surgery, radioactive iodine, or the natural process of the disease has destroyed their thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism may cause fluid to accumulate around the joints, and its effects on muscle pain and stiffness add to the joint symptoms. Accumulation of fluid or thickening of tissues around tendons may compress nerves at critical places, particularly in the wrists, causing carpal tunnel syndrome. On the other hand, rheumatoid arthritis, a more serious autoimmune joint disease, appears to be only slightly more common among thyroid...

Sleep Deprivation

There is a misconception that as we get older, we need less sleep. This is not so we need just as much sleep as always, but we often get less sleep. What happens is that our ability to achieve quality sleep for long periods of time diminishes as we age. The older we get, the more fragile our sleep becomes, which can be more easily disturbed by light, noise, and pain (from arthritis, and so on). It's common for various medical conditions to interfere with sleep, and in the case of thyroid disease, this is usually the result of restlessness, anxiety, and racing heart from thyrotoxicosis. Whether you're euthyroid, hypothyroid, or thyrotoxic, for a better sleep, try the following


Chronic insomnia is often linked to depression, but is also seen in people with arthritis (because of nighttime discomfort), kidney disease, heart failure, asthma, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (described later), and Parkinson's disease. Insomnia is generally treated through behavioral therapy and lifestyle modification. When you are thyrotoxic, you may think you have insomnia, when, in fact, your anxiety and restlessness is the result of too much thyroid hormone. A thyroid function test for anyone on thyroid hormone medication should rule out thyroid-related insomnia.

Assessment Of Comorbidity

It is important to determine the presence of any cardiac risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and cigarette smoking and to provide appropriate advice and therapy. The physical symptoms of obesity include reduced mobility, joint pain, chest pain, breathing difficulties and sleeping difficulties, and these should also be assessed. Conditions such as osteoarthritis and gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric reflux can also be exacerbated by excess weight. As well as measures of glycaemic control, measurements of biochemical indices such as lipid levels and thyroid levels are advisable.

Bodys reaction after Zhan zhuang

If parts of body were wounded in the past, during post standing these old wounds may suddenly reactivate pain, this is called old wound reaction. There is another type of local reaction, for patient suffering from neurasthenia, it may trigger headache, those suffering from stomach and intestines diseases may feel abdominal pains, those suffering from arthritis sufferer may find their joints swelling and aching, for people suffering from goiter (large swelling of a thyroid gland) may have local feeling of needling (or acmesthesia), etc. All these reactions will generally disappear by themselves within 3 to 10 days. They are in fact good preliminary signs of recovery as they

Membrane and Cartilage Bone

Conversely, inactivity and the lack of exercise can result in remodeling which produces diminished bone mass. The complex changes involved in bone remodeling are also controlled by vitamin D and hormones originating in the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, and the parathyroid glands. Abnormalities in bone growth and remodeling are associated with a great many bone diseases, ranging from rickets to bone cancer.

Other Costimulatory Systems

Although accumulating studies have demonstrated the importance of other co-stimulatory systems in antibody production during conventional immune responses, relatively few have directly addressed their roles in autoreactive T-B interactions. For example, CD137 (4-1BB) antibodies inhibit autoantibody production in both MRL lpr and (NZBxNZW) F1 lupus-prone mice 58, 59 , as well as in graft-versus-host disease models 60 , but may exert an indirect effect via CD8 cells, rather than upon the interaction between helper T cells and autoreac-tive B cells. In addition, several studies have demonstrated abnormal expression of CD134 (0X40 ligand) in SLE 61 and MG 62 , as well as of CD30 in SLE 63 , autoimmune thyroid disease 64 , systemic sclerosis 65 , pemphigoid 66 , and primary biliary cirrhosis 67 . Other studies have suggested both inhibitory and costimulatory functions for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induc-ing ligand (TRAIL) 68, 69 , and PD-1 deficiency can cause a lupus-like...

Autoantibodies as Diagnostic Markers

Some of the antibodies produced by patients with systemic (non-organ-specific) or organ-specific autoimmune diseases are clinically useful for diagnosis, since their appearance is restricted to certain diseases or disease subtypes. These include antibodies to double-stranded (ds)DNA, Sm antigen, and ribosomal P proteins in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) DNA-topoisomerase I in systemic sclerosis (SSc) citrullinated-modified proteins in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) tRNA synthetase in myositis glutamic acid decarboxylase and the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like molecule (known as IA-2) in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin in autoimmune thyroiditis and the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) 2-8 . While many antibodies are highly specific to a particular disease, the usefulness of some of them as diagnostic markers is relatively poor due to their low prevalence. For example, this is the case for...

Impaired Lymphocyte Cell Death and Autoimmunity

Failure of the immune system to eliminate autoreactive lymphocytes may lead to excessive cell death induced by autoreactive T cells in target organs in certain organ-specific autoimmune diseases. For instance, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is characterized by T cell-mediated selective destruction of the insulin-producing 5-cells of the Langerhans islets of the pancreas 20 . In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, both autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are involved in 5-cell destruction via recognition of presented peptides derived from self-antigens such as insulin, GAD65 67, and HSP70 20 . CD4+ T cells can directly induce 5-cell apoptosis through FasL-Fas interactions or promote the effector functions of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, which involve perforin-dependent delivery of cytotoxic granules. Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity has been also proposed to explain the destruction of oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis as well...

Angiogenesis Associated with Other Pathological Conditions

Moreover, Sato et al. (186) proposed that VEGF may be responsible for the characteristic hypervascularity of Graves' disease. TSH, insulin phorbol ester, dibutiryl cAMP, and Graves' IgG were found to stimulate VEGF mRNA expression in cultured human thyroid follicles (186).

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus is accompanied by antibodies to a wide range of self antigens, one of the most unusual being DNA. Although many other autoantibodies (e.g., against thyroid or liver tissue muscle and blood cells and serum proteins) are found in lupus patients, antibodies to DNA are the most prominent, and are in fact diagnostic for the disease. It is likely that the DNA antibodies are formed against DNA released by dying cells. It is not clear whether the DNA antibodies themselves cause any harm. Such antibodies are not formed in other diseases in which cells die and release their contents, so their appearance in lupus is still something of a mystery. If we knew why these particular antibodies were formed in the first place, we would likely understand a great deal more than we do about this disease.

CD137CD137L in Health and Disease

Cd137 Cd137l

The importance of CD137-CD137L interactions has been underscored in several experimental systems (Vinay and Kwon, 1998). Expression of CD137 CD137L has been reported in various clinical disorders. Yamada-Okabe et al. (2003) demonstrated that thyroid hormone induced CD137 expression along with caspases. Also, expression of CD137 was detected in the inflammatory tissue in Crohn's disease (Maerten et al., 2004). Interestingly, soluble forms of CD137 and CD137L were found in serum samples collected from humans with rheumatoid arthritis, and the levels of circulating CD137 and its ligand closely mirrored disease severity (Jung et al., 2004). Serum levels of soluble CD137L are also reported in patients with hematological malignancies (Salih et al., 2001). Furthermore, expression of CD137L was localized to the aortic tissue of subjects with Takayasu's arthritis (Seko et al., 2004). Likewise, Wan et al. (2004) have demonstrated expression of CD137 in both hepatocellular carcinoma and...

Autoimmune Complications

Although most episodes of yersiniosis remit spontaneously without long-term sequelae, infections with Y. enterocolitica are noteworthy for the large variety of immunological complications, such as reactive arthritis, erythema nodosum, uveitis, glomerulonephritis, carditis, and thyroiditis, which have been reported to follow acute infection (51). Of these, reactive arthritis is the most widely recognized (58-60). This manifestation of infection is infrequent before the age of 10 years and occurs most often in Scandinavian countries where serotype O 3 strains and the human leukocyte antigen, HLA-B27, are especially prevalent. Men and women are effected equally. Arthritis typically follows the onset of diarrhea or the pseudoappendicular syndrome by 1-2 weeks with a range of from 1 to 38 days. The joints most commonly involved are the knees, ankles, toes, tarsal joints, fingers, wrists, and elbows. Synovial fluid from affected joints contains large numbers of inflammatory cells,...

Gerontologie Alert

Plasma levels of the endogenous adrenocortical hormones vary throughout the day and nighttime hours. They are normally higher between 2 AM and about 8 AM, and lower between 4 PM and midnight. When plasma levels are lower, the anterior pituitary releases ACTH, which in turn stimulates the adrenal cortex to manufacture and release glucocorticoids. When plasma levels are high, the pituitary gland does not release ACTH. The response of the pituitary to high or low plasma levels of glucocorticoids and the resulting release or nonrelease of ACTH is an example of the feedback mechanism, which may also be seen in other glands of the body, such as the thyroid gland. The feedback mechanism (also called the feedback control) is the method by which the body maintains most hormones at relatively constant levels within the bloodstream. When the hormone concentration falls, the rate of production of that hormone increases. Likewise, when the hormone level becomes too high, the body decreases...

Autoimmune Effects Of Ifna

Glandular manifestations Thyroiditis Sialoadenitis Sjogren's syndrome Autoimmune liver disease Okanoue et al. (28) studied the IFN-related autoimmune complications of677 patients with chronic HCV who underwent antiviral therapy. These conditions included autoimmune thyroiditis (18 patients) hemolytic anemia (two patients) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (two patients) immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP), psoriasis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like syndrome (one patient each). In that retrospective study, the autoimmune complications generally occurred from 12 to 20 wk after starting IFN. After cessation of therapy, most of these entities completely resolved. Endocrine Thyroid autoantibodies Graves' disease

The Checklist in History Taking

Change, dry skin, cold intolerance, sluggishness, weight gain, constipation, menorrhagia, or decreased hearing Thyroid tests 2. Thyroid disease (heat intolerance, etc. see under High Output Failure Possibilities in Checklist) or pheochromocytoma (flushing, headaches, or perspiration)

Discharge And Home Healthcare Guidelines

Teach the patient to avoid medications and foods that lead to endemic or sporadic goiter. Patients with endemic goiter should use iodized salt to supply at least 300 g of iodine daily to prevent goiter. Be sure that the patient understands all medications, including the dosage, route, action, adverse effects, and the need for any laboratory monitoring of thyroid medications. Encourage the patient to take thyroid hormone supplements at the same time each day to maintain constant thyroid levels in the blood.

Autoimmunity In Bcell Malignancies

Predominating findings in these patients were Coombs-positive autoimmune haemolytic anemia (AIHA), platelet antibody-positive idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), cold agglutinin syndrome, endocrinopathy involving mainly the thyroid but also the pancreatic islets in the form of autoimmune thyroiditis and diabetes mellitus. A later study which included 57 patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) and 145 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) 16 and 13, respectively, had signs of concomitant autoimmune manifestations 18 . An unexpectedly high number (10) of these had Sjogren's syndrome, 8 had autoimmune thyroid disease, 6 peptic ulcers with parietal cell antibodies, 2 rheumatoid arthritis and 1 systemic lupus erythematosus. There was a clear-cut female predominance among the patients. Three WM patients had ITP and one had AIHA. All of the patients with autoimmune manifestations had lymphoid infiltrates at extranodal sites as evidenced through...

Case 65 Anterior Mediastinal Mass Due To Lymphoma

Female Mediastinal Mass Left

The PA CXR shows a mass adjacent to the left heart border. There is hyperinflation of both lung fields, suggesting obstructive airway disease. The left cardiac margin is obscured, indicating an anterior mediastinal mass as the heart is an anterior mediastinal structure. CT (Fig. 65.2) confirms that there is a mass in the anterior mediastinum and this mass is compressing the lower trachea and main-stem bronchi and right pulmonary artery. The differential diagnoses of masses in the anterior mediastinum include the 5 T s thyroid masses, teratoma, thymic masses, (terrible) lymphoma, and thoracic aneurysm.

Other biological activities of IL1

IL-1, an endogenous pyrogen, acts on the fever center and also stimulates the hypothalamus to produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), resulting in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. IL-1 can also directly stimulate pituitary ACTH release. This activation of the HPA axis culminates in induction of the production of glucocorticoids by the adrenals. Glucocorticoids act as a negative feedback regulator by suppressing the production of IL-1 and upregulat-ing both type I and type II IL-1 receptors. IL-1 also inhibits the release of both gonadotropin-rcleasing hormone and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreases plasma thyroid hormone.

Lipid Metabolism in Cachexia

Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations are regulated by genetic, metabolic and dietary factors. Several genetic (primary) forms of both hyperlipidaemia and hypolipidaemia have been described, as well as secondary (or acquired) forms due to systemic disease such as diabetes, endocrine diseases (thyroid, hypophysis) or organ failure (liver, kidney)(Table 1) 2 . Secondary hyperlipidaemias are also produced by some drugs. In association with genetic background, dietary habits have an important role in modulating plasma lipid concentrations therefore, the alterations of lipid metabolism in cachexia must be considered taking into account all these factors. different illnesses (including cancer, sepsis, chronic heart failure, thyroid diseases, severe liver diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and AIDS), the alterations of lipid metabolism observed in these patients may have different causes, related to specific organ involvement, dietary modifications, fat absorption or drugs.

The Cascade of Inflammatory Signaling

Chronic stress has negative effects on inflammatory signaling, serum glucose, serum cortisol levels, serum thyroid hormone levels, and body weight. Chronic stress, through hyperexcitation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and microglial cell activation of the immune system, directly affects fat storage and weight gain in stressed individuals. Elevated serum cortisol is associated with diabetes and its complications as well as being a known initiator of insulin resistance. This could be the clue to why so many type 2 diabetics have evidence of autoimmunity. Elevations of cortisol and depletion of dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) pools are associated with memory loss and atrophy of the hippocampus combined with the known defect in glucose utilization in Alzheimer's disease could offer an important insight into neurodegeneration found in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Demonstrate that despite normalization of CD4 cell numbers, HIV-specific immunity and complete immune restoration seldom occurs. Despite this limitation, post-HAART immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome seems capable of providing protection from opportunistic infections, although the restoration of immunity can also have adverse consequences. An inflammatory reaction following institution of HAART has been described and is believed to result from an augmented immune response to pathogens that are prevalent in the host but have been clinically occult. It has been showed by numerous reports of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in response to intracellular pathogens (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare MAI complex, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Histoplasma capsulatum, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C) 130-134 . The mean onset to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome appearance following HAART was up to 9 months and most resolved with little or no therapy. Although...

Approach To Hypercalcemia

If a malignancy is not found, other etiologies must be considered. These fall into the category of endocrine disorders other than parathyroid and include hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and acromegaly. The work-up thus includes thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a Cortisol level, and a pituitary imaging study, respectively.

Autoimmunity Relationship

Smoking and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease It has been proposed 51 that circulating T cells directed against an antigen on thyroid follicular cells, enter the orbit and interact with fibroblasts leading to the production of cytokines. The cytokines are thought to enhance the expression of immunoregulatory proteins such as the 72 kD heat shock protein, ICAM-1 and HLA-DR, to further maintain the ongoing autoimmune process. Additionally, several cytokines (i.e., TGF- 3, IFN-y and insulin-like growth factor I) induce production of glycosaminoglycan leading to the emergence of the ophthalmopathy 51 , In this respect, it is interesting to mention the study by Prummel et al. 52 showing that antibodies to hsp-72 were increased both in the sera of Graves' disease patients and in smoking control subjects suggesting that the antibodies may be a marker for autoimmune susceptibility. The association between smoking, Graves' disease and endocrine ophthalmopathy has recently been examined in a case...

Indications and Patient Selection for Bariatric Surgery

Patients need to understand clearly all phases of the treatment, the procedure itself, and possible complications. While it is a very important step, the surgery itself is probably the easiest phase of what will be lifetime changes for these patients. Only when the patient understands all the intricacies of the procedure, the course of postoperative care and is deemed to be a proper candidate for surgical treatment, should one proceed with surgery. In today's information age when the procedure may be seen on the internet, many patients are much more sophisticated and informed about the operation, the existing expertise, method and techniques of the operation. As part of the preoperative evaluation, the surgeon should perform a careful physical examination and take a complete medical history. Most of the patients have co-morbid diseases and those need to be sought out carefully. In our practice, the surgical team is often the first to suspect the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome....

An antigen that does not normally circulate in the blood may become exposed to the immune system

Thyroglobulin protein that is normally trapped within the thyroid follicles, for example, can stimulate the production of autoantibodies that cause the destruction of the thyroid this occurs in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Similarly, autoantibodies developed against lens protein in a damaged eye may cause the destruction of a healthy eye (in sympathetic ophthalmia). 5. Self-antigens, such as receptor proteins, may be presented to the helper T lymphocytes together with class-2 MHC molecules. Normally, only antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, and antigen-activated B cells) produce class-2 MHC molecules, which are associated with foreign antigens and recognized by helper T cells. Perhaps as a result of viral infection, however, cells that do not normally produce class-2 MHC molecules may start to do so and, in this way, present a self-antigen to the helper T cells. In Graves'disease, for example, the thyroid cells produce class-2 MHC molecules, and the immune system...

Clinical and Pathologic Manifestations of IPEX

Thyroid disease The second most common complication of IPEX is autoimmune endocrinopathy. Early onset (sometimes present at birth) insulin-dependent type I diabetes is almost a pathog-nomonic finding originally reported by Powell et al. (1982). The diabetes is difficult to control, and affected males often have anti-islet cell autoantibodies. At autopsy, the pancreas shows chronic interstitial inflammation with lymphocytic infiltrates and absence of islet cells (Wildin et al. 2002). Thyroid disease, initially presenting as either hypo- or hyper-thyroidism, is a common complication (Powell et al. 1982 Nieves et al. 2004), and may be associated with elevated thyroid stimulation hormone levels or anti-thyroid microsomal antibodies (Wildin et al. 2002). The intestinal tract abnormalities are characterized by a loss of villi in the small bowel associated with mucosal erosions and lymphocytic infiltrates in the lamina propria and submucosa. Lymphocytic infiltrates may also be present in the...

Initial Laboratory Evaluation

Immunologic Autoimmune diseases, document HIV testing Endocrine History of diabetes mellitus or thyroid disease Physical exam General inspection Scleral icterus Pallor Encephalopathy Past medical history Identify history of serious illnesses including, but not limited to, severe or uncontrolled cardiopulmonary, thyroid, autoimmune, or renal disease, diabetes, or active malignancy. Complete list of current medications, including over-the-counter medications or complementary therapies Family history Family history of liver disease, hepatitis, alco, psychiatric disease, or autoimmune disease Social history There are a number of lab studies that are necessary for developing the therapeutic plan, which include complete blood count (CBC) renal, and liver function tests, and a baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone. The CBC and the liver function tests may be the first indication that the patient has advanced liver disease, and may not be appropriate for IFN. In addition, the finding of...

Preface to the Second Edition

Fat accumulation associated with treatment with proteases and we have added a chapter to cover this area (Chap. 19). The importance of visceral and total body fat continues to expand. One of the key new developments of the 1990s was the recognition that the fat cell is one of the most important endocrine cells in the body. We have recognized this with several chapters on adipose tissue (Chaps. 17,18,20,21, and 22). We have also recognized the importance of obesity in the function of the classical endocrine glands such as the adrenal, thyroid, pituitary and gonads (Chaps. 25, 26, and 27). The other side of the energy balance from food intake is energy expenditure. This subject too receives substantial discussion in several chapters (Chaps. 23, 24, and 28). Muscle metabolism and nutrient partitioning are the final two chapters in this section.

Allelic spectrum in lupus

Overall, ANAs are much more common than lupus. ANAs may represent a general tendency towards autoimmunity. Almost all lupus patients have ANAs, but ANA alone has a low positive predictive value for the diagnosis of lupus. On the basis of evidence from mouse and human studies, the ANA phenotype appears to have a large genetic footprint. Furthermore, many autoimmunity alleles are associated with more than one autoimmune disease (e.g. PTPN22 RA, SLE, T1D autoimmune thyroid disease Bottini et al 2004 FCRL3 RA, SLE, thyroiditis Kochi et al 2005 , Table 1), and therefore cannot easily account for either the relative specificity of the autoantibody spectrum, or the end-organ pathology that distinguishes lupus from other autoantibody-mediated diseases (e.g. myasthenia gravis, Goodpasture's syndrome). AITD, autoimmune thyroid disease ALPS, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome AS, ankylosing spondylitis CD, celiac disease HSP, Henoch-Schonlein purpura MG, myasthenia gravis RA, rheumatoid...

Immediate Questions

Is there significant organ dysfunction or active inflammatory disease Severe liver, kidney, adrenal, and thyroid dysfunction cause anemia. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, vasculitides, and chronic osteomyelitis are associated with anemia of chronic disease. C. Normal MCV Anemias. Anemia of chronic disease is most common. Other etiologies include acute blood loss chronic infections collagen vascular diseases malignancies kidney, liver, thyroid, and adrenal dysfunction and transient erythroblastopenia of childhood.

Pregnancy Category B

Breathing, and momentary low blood pressure when a person stands up. One study found the drug to impair breathing more than various other opiates do, and in another study, doses of oxycodone had to be stopped lest the volunteers be harmed by further breathing difficulty. Normally the drug should be avoided if a person suffers from pancreatitis, enlarged prostate, difficulty with urination, or poorly functioning thyroid or adrenal glands. Experimenters have demonstrated that the drug reduces physical and mental abilities needed for driving automobiles.

Familial aggregation of autoimmune diseases and phenotypes

In addition to this evidence for familial aggregation of particular disease pheno-types, it is also apparent that in some cases different autoimmune disorders also tend to aggregate together in families with one another. This issue is difficult to study since it requires the study of sizable populations of affected subjects with careful characterization of disease phenotypes in their relatives. The best evidence for familial aggregation across diseases involves type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune thyroid disease 15-17 . SLE probably also falls into this group 18, 19 , as well as other less common autoimmune disorders 20 . Multiple sclerosis may also have some tendency toward familial aggregation with these disorders although the data on this is less clear 21-23 . With the exception of MS, an excess of autoantibodies in unaffected relatives is also well described for many of these diseases. For example, approximately 20 of the first degree relatives of patients with...

The PTPN22 620W is associated with many autoimmune diseases that are characterized by a prominent humoral component

The association of PTPN22 to disease susceptibility has been extended to other autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune thyroid disease 9, 10, 63 and systemic lupus 8, 61 and juvenile inflammatory arthritis 60 . However, neither multiple sclerosis 64 nor Crohn's disease 65 appear to be associated with the PTPN22 620W allele. In all associated diseases, inheritance fits best under a multiplicative genetic model 620W W homozygotes have a substantial increase in relative risk compared to heterozygotes. This observation is consistent with a threshold effect of the risk allele on signaling in T-cells. The results from a variety of case-control studies are summarized in Table 1. Interestingly, the PTPN22 associated disorders (T1D, RA, SLE, and AITD) are also diseases that tend to cluster together in families, as discussed in the first sections of this review. Indeed, these PTPN22 associations have been replicated directly in such multiplex families 11 . In addition, all of...

Locoregional T and Nstaging

Misinterpretations in the PET staging investigations occurred in cases with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, bronchogenic carcinoma, inflamed epidermal cyst, Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland, surgical wound inflammation, leiomyoma of the uterus, suture granuloma, and endometriosis. Such lesions must be clinically excluded by topographical reflections and by the exclusion of inflammatory lesions, etc.

Issues Of Diseases In The Elderly

Depression is a frequently missed diagnosis in the elderly. The Alliance for Aging Research says that 15 of Americans aged 65 years and older experience clinically relevant depression. It can amplify the underlying disabilities in stroke, arthritis, Parkinson's disease, slow or prevent recovery from hip fracture and surgery, and be mimicked or masked by an underactive thyroid. The latest receptor-specific medicines have a very much reduced potential for adverse events and drug interactions. Difficulties can arise from confusion, memory impairment and disorientation, which are common in the depressed elderly. This brings challenges of ensuring both drug compliance and follow-up attendance in clinical studies. It also may require guardian co-signature for informed witnessed consent.

Vhsp 65 Antibodies In Atherosclerosis

Whether hsp 65 was also involved as an antigen to stimulate B-cell production of specific antibodies in humans with atherosclerosis. To investigate this issue, we participated in an epidemiological study carried out in Bruneck, a small town in South Tyrol (8). Of 13,534 clinically normal inhabitants, 867 volunteers, aged 40-79 years, were randomly selected for determination of serum antibodies against hsp 65, simultaneous sonographic assessment of carotid atherosclerotic lesions, and evaluation of established risk factors, that is, blood cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens, thyroid antigens, and rheumatoid factors were determined for control purposes. Our data showed that serum hsp 65 antibodies were significantly (p 0.01) increased in subjects with carotid atherosclerosis compared with those without lesions, and this increased antibody level was independent of other established risk factors. On the other hand, the...

Central Pain Syndrome Glossary

Iodine A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically. Thyroxine An amino acid of the thyroid gland which exerts a stimulating effect on thyroid metabolism. nih

Raynauds Phenomenon Glossary

Calcitonin A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal Iodine A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically. Thyroxine An amino acid of the thyroid gland which exerts a stimulating effect on thyroid metabolism. nih Tyrosine A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and melanin. nih

Specific Discussion

Directed at the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Up to 40 of patients with thymoma have myasthenia gravis, but thymectomy rarely alters the clinical course. (4) Extrathymic malignancies, lymphoma, thyroid cancer, and lung cancer occur in 20 of thymoma patients. Eaton-Lambert syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic neuromuscular defect in which the auto-antibodies are directed against P Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels called VGCCs. The presence of autoantibodies blocks calcium influx into the nerves. It is associated with certain malignancies, especially small cell lung cancer. The Tensilon test is not always definitive in patients with mysasthenia gravis assessment for antibodies to acetylcholine receptors, detected in 90 of patients with myasthenia gravis, is the test of choice. Hepatitis and aspiration pneumonia are not associated with thymoma.

Clinical findings

Limited data are available regarding the use of physical findings for making an etiological diagnosis in patients presenting with chronic diarrhea. Among HIV-infected patients, the history and physical examination have been reported not to be helpful in determining whether or not an enteropathogen will be identified, with the exception that abdominal tenderness was commoner in patients with CMV.107 The American Gastroenterological Association has recommended that complete evaluation of persons seeking care for chronic diarrhea include evaluation of fluid balance, nutritional status, presence of flushing or rashes, mouth ulcers, thyroid masses, wheezing, arthritis, cardiac murmurs, hepatomegaly, abdominal masses, ascites, and edema. Attention should be paid during anorectal examination to the anal sphincter tone and the presence of perianal fistula or abscess.100

Distribution Of Drugs

PLASMA PROTEINS Many drugs circulate in the bloodstream reversibly bound to plasma proteins. Albumin is a major carrier for acidic drugs a -acid glycoprotein binds basic drugs. Nonspecific binding to other plasma proteins generally occurs to a much smaller extent. In addition, certain drugs may bind to proteins that function as specific hormone carrier proteins, such as the binding of thyroid hormone to thyroxin-binding globulin.

Effects Of Stress On The Body

The stress response affects many hormones. Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary, which may suppress reproduction. The pancreas is stimulated to release the hormone glucagon, which raises blood sugar levels. Antidiuretic hormone, or vasopressin, is secreted from the pituitary, which maintains fluid levels. Additional hormones, such as growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, thyroid releasing hormone (TRH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and insulin, are suppressed.22,23

Whats Wrong with the Lab Tests

If you go to your doctor to have your thyroid tested, he or she will draw your blood and send it to the lab to obtain a thyroid panel. While the advances made in diagnosing diseases in the laboratory have been remarkable over the last decade, as can be seen in the tests for illnesses such as rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer, lab tests for hypothyroid problems are still largely inaccurate, according to Dr. Charles Mary III of the Mary Clinic in Louisiana. Dr. Mary's position was backed up by the majority of doctors attending the recent Consensus Development Conference. One of the breakthroughs in the last several decades has been the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) test. When doctors first discovered how to measure this hormone, they decided that TSH was the gold standard of diagnosing thyroid dysfunction. TSH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland in response to fluctuations of thyroid hormone. If the brain sees low levels of thyroid hormones in the body, or if a...

Is Human Growth Hormone Replacement the Answer

As the Consensus Report of the International College of Integrative Medicine states, You can't just focus on one hormone, and the patient has to be treated as a whole person. You have to look at the other aspects of the endocrine system. For example, people with thyroid disorders will not achieve optimal health until the thyroid disorder is corrected first. They may also need testosterone, progesterone, estrogen, etc. So you should check all of the hormone levels when approaching the patient.

What does the research say

One of the more interesting properties of Ashwagandha may be its ability to increase levels of thyroid hormones. Mice gavaged with 1.4 g kg root extract for 20 days had increased serum levels of T3 and T4, along with reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. There is even a case report of thyrotoxicosis in a woman taking a supplement containing Ashwagandha.

Establishment of CD4 T Cells as Mediators of Induced Resistance

Susceptible mice do not develop thyroiditis spontaneously, despite the continuous presence of low levels of circulatory Tg and the presence of autoreactive T cells. Indeed, thyroiditogenic, autoreactive T cells capable of responding to syn-geneic mTg administration and mediating thyroid pathology were demonstrated in susceptible, but not resistant, mice (ElRehewy et al., 1981). Clearly, suppressor mechanisms exist in susceptible mice, which can be overcome upon immunization with mTg. We subsequently observed that pretreatment of susceptible mice with mTg rendered the mice tolerant to immunization with mTg and adjuvant (Kong et al., 1982). Three parameters are used to measure this resistance much reduced to absent infiltration of mononuclear cells into the thyroid, very low mTg antibody level, and minimal T cell proliferative response in vitro to mTg. Raising the circulatory mTg level 3- to 5-fold above baseline for 2-3 days is key to successful tolerance induction (Kong et al., 1982...

Parp As Transcriptional Regulator Of Inflammation And Lymphocyte Homing

Migration of inflammatory cells (monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes) to the site of inflammation as well as migration of lymphocytes to lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, tonsils) where antigens are presented to lymphocytes by APCs is regulated by chemotactic cytokines called chemokines. Chemokines induce the upregulation of adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells and migrating cells (granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes) leading to a firm attachment of migrating cells to the endothelium followed by transendothelial migration. At the site of inflammation, movement of leukocytes in the tissues is enhanced by enzymes such as collagenase, hyaluronidase, and elastase, which degrade the intercellular matrix of the connective tissue. Upon exposure to cytokines, inflammatory cells become activated. Activation results in the upregulation of MHC-II molecules and increased production of inflammatory mediators, e.g., NO. Upregulation of MHC-II molecules on the...

Clinical Features of Infection

Most clinical manifestations of congenital rubella are evident at or shortly following birth and some are transient. However, recognition of retinopathy, hearing loss and mental retardation may be delayed for several years in some cases. Progressive consequences of congenital rubella have become increasingly appreciated as CRS children from the 1964 epidemic have been followed longitudinally. These predominantly involve endocrine dysfunction (diabetes melli-tus, which ultimately affects 40 of CRS patients, and thyroid dysfunction). A rare, fatal neurodegenerative disease, progressive rubella panencephalitis (PRP), was also described in CRS patients that bears superficial resemblance to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with measles virus. Subsequently, PRP cases were also reported in individuals who were infected postnatally.

Yersinia enterocolitica

In 2 to 3 of cases sequelae are observed. These include Grave disease (autoimmune thyroid disease), Reiter syndrome (association of urethritis, mucocutaneous lesion, and arthritis), eye complaints and rash, cholangitis, erythema nodosum, septicemia, hepatic and splenic abscesses, lymphadenitis, pneumonia and spondylitis.

Chronic Inflammation and Sleep

Disordered sleep and fatigue are common features of diseases associated with chronic inflammation. For example, patients with autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Crohn's disease, and autoimmune thyroid disease) often report disturbed sleep and excessive fatigue (Bourguignon, Labyak, and Taibi 2003 Lashley 2003). Neuroimmune influences on sleep during autoimmune disease are the focus of other chapters of this book and will not be discussed here.

TABLE 3023 Suggested Ancillary Studies in Developmentally Disabled Adults

If agitation is the primary complaint, vitamin B12 levels, thyroid abnormalities, and the level of oxygenation as measured by pulse oximetry should be assessed, and impaction should be excluded with an abdominal radiograph. 4. If a change in mental status or delirium has precipitated the evaluation, consider infections, seizures, and drug interactions or toxicities. Check thyroid function, carnitine levels (especially if patient is on valproic acid), and serum drug levels. Anticholinergics, antihistamines, and benzodiazepines are frequently associated with delirium and agitation.

Autoimmune Manifestations with Cytokine Administration

Induction of autoimmune events appears to be a frequent feature (Fattovich et al., 1996 Wilson et al., 2002). This includes an exhaustive list of manifestations of autoimmunity and associated diseases (Miossec, 1997). This has led to the recommendation to exclude patients with concomitant clinically overt autoimmune disease from the use of IFNa for the treatment of viral hepatitis. The range goes from the mere presence or induction of autoantibodies with no clinical consequence to the most severe autoimmune disease. The pathogenicity of autoanti-bodies is often unclear and far from being always associated with disease manifestations. Their targets include blood cells (red cells, leukocytes, platelets), coagulation factors (factor VIII, lupus anticoagulant), immunoglobulins (rheumatoid factor with or without cryoglobulin activity), intracellular components (nucleus, enzymes), hormones (thyroid hormones, insulin), and the skin (epidermis) (Fattovich et al., 1991). In particular,...

Systemic Associations

Associated immune disorders to be considered in children include rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, asthma, and thyroid disease neoplasia (breast cancer, uterine cancer, carcinoma of the colon, pinealoma) is also seen.408 Thymoma rarely occurs in children although it is recognized to accompany 10 of myasthenia gravis.

Innovative screening protocols

The isolation of disease-related antibodies specific for either melanoma 180 , the autoimmune thyroid peroxidase antigen 174 , or neutrophil antigen characteristic of ulcerative colitis 17 from nonnaive patient repertoire phage libraries has been reviewed above in the 'Panning on cells' section. The isolation of anti-viral antibodies with diagnostic or therapeutic potential from antibody repertoire libraries has been described in earlier papers e.g. against HIV 197 , hepatitis B virus 198 and human respiratory syncytial virus 199 .

Role in Disease Processes

VEGF mRNA is significantly upregulated in the majority of human tumors such as lung carcinomas, thyroid carcinomas, breast carcinomas, gastrointestinal tract tumors, urinary tract tumors, female reproductive tract tumors, germ cell tumors, angiosarcoma, and some intracranial tumors. Postoperative surgeries have indicated that the relapse-free survival rate of patients with VEGF-rich tumors is significantly lower than that of VEGF-poor tumors. Patients with VEGF-positive tumors have a worse prognosis than those with VEGF-negative tumors.

Pharmacological effects

Many pharmacological effects of RA are known. Rosmarinic acid inhibits several complement dependent inflammatory processes and has potential as a therapeutic agent for control of complement activation diseases (15,16). Rosmarinic acid has been reported to have effects on both the classical C3-convertase and on the cobra venom factor and ovalbumin antiovalbumin mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (15). Rosmarinic acid also inhibits prostacyclin synthesis induced by complement activation (17,18). Rosmarinic acid is also known to have complement independent effects, such as scavenging of oxygen free radicals and inhibiting elastase and is known to be safe (19). Other actions of RA are antithyrotropic activity in tests with human thyroid membrane preparations, inhibition of complement dependent components of endotoxin shock in rabbits, and the ability to react rapidly to viral coat proteins and so inactivate the virus (15). Rosmarinic acid also inhibits Forskolin induced activation of...

Case Study III Psychiatric Perspectives

Walker's medical history was significant for hypertension, hypothyroidism, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis. Her recent thyroid function tests performed by her internist were normal. Her medications included donepezil, Vitamin E, levothyroxine, lisinopril, and alendronate. She had a period of the blues for three weeks after the birth of her second child, which resolved without treatment. There is no other significant psychiatric history. She has never smoked she drank socially when younger, but not at all in recent years. Mrs. Walker's mother died of senility at age 71. Mrs. Walker was the third of five siblings and grew up in a small town. She completed a master's degree in education and taught elementary school until her retirement at age 62. She has been married for 52 years to her husband, a retired businessman they have three children and seven grandchildren.

Arthritis In Bloodvessel To The Brain

Coronal Plane

Just as changes at the tissue level cause organ-level signs of aging, certain biochemical changes fuel cellular aging. Lipofuscin and ceroid pigments accumulate as the cell can no longer prevent formation of damaging oxygen free radicals. A protein called beta amyloid may build up in the brain and blood vessels, contributing, in some individuals, to the development of Alzheimer disease. A generalized metabolic slowdown results from a dampening of thyroid gland function, impairing glucose utilization, the rate of protein synthesis, and production of digestive enzymes. At the whole body level, we notice slowed metabolism as diminished tolerance to cold, weight gain, and fatigue.

Inflammatory or Infiltrative Lesions

Relapsing Polychondritis Radiology

Figure 14-20 (continued) H, Computed tomography image of the same patient in Figure 14-20G, showing severe tracheal compromise. Note the calcification in the amyloid mass.The splayed shadow anterior to the trachea is the thyroid. I, Upper thoracic trachea is also invaded. Amyloid infiltrates the esophageal wall and narrows its lumen. A 5 cm length of the trachea and the anterior sub-glottic larynx were resected, plus esophageal muscular coats. Putty-like amyloid infiltrated the mediastinum and behind the posterior cricoid. Good result was finally achieved but a re-resection of the anastomotic stenosis, due to failure of healing of the first anastomosis, was required.

Hormones of the adrenal cortex

Estenosis Uretral

Plant components often have an indirect action on the secretion of certain hormones by stimulating or inhibiting other areas like the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland which can control the function of most other glands (e.g. gonado-trophic, thyrotrophic and corticotrophic action). (For more details see Plants acting on sex hormones.) However, great precaution should be taken in using the hypothalamus-pituitary axis as a narrow interrelationship exists and often hormonal or pharmacological actions other than those desired can be obtained (Bianchi, 1962 Goodman and Gilman, 1976). Thus stimulation of lactation has been obtained with dried thyroid gland or thyroxine (Robinson, 1947 Naish, 1954), no doubt through indirect action via the pituitary gland and an impairment of the pituitary adrenal response to acute stress is observed in alloxan diabetes (Kraus, 1949). Plant constituents capable of influencing hormone-controlled metabolic actions may also act by removing...

Role of Autoantibodies in Tissuespecific Organ Damage

Autoimmune diseases affect 3-5 of the population, but they attract medical attention only when they become sustained and cause lasting tissue damage 1 . Depending on the affected organ, the clinical presentation of autoimmune diseases can be very heterogeneous and specific, or unspecific features can predominate. A common characteristic of autoimmune diseases is the presence of autoantibodies that are produced by autoreactive lymphocytes and that may be the direct cause of some of these disorders. For instance, in Graves' disease, autoantibodies bind to and stimulate the receptor for thyrotropin, resulting in unrestrained thyrocyte growth, excessive thyroid hormone production, and diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland 2, 3 . In Hashimoto's thyroiditis, antibodies against thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, and the thyrotropin receptor have been suggested to play a role in the progressive destruction of thyroid follicular cells 4, 5 . In pemphigus vulgaris, autoantibodies against the...

Mechanisms controlling autoimmunity

Cell Bypass Theory

Although evidence for several different tolerance mechanisms exists, the relative role of each of these in controlling autoimmunity remains to be firmly established. For a long time it was thought that many self antigens were sequestered in 'privileged sites' and therefore shielded from the immune system. The advent of sensitive assay techniques allowed the detection of, for example, low levels of circulating thyroglobulin (an autoantigen previously thought to be completely sequestered within the thyroid). Nevertheless, it is believed that for a few self molecules, such as lens proteins, sperm and brain antigens, this concept largely holds true. Molecular mimicry of self antigen by invading organisms can lead to a breakdown of self tolerance as seen in the cross-reactions between streptococcal M protein and cardiac myosin in rheumatic fever and between both brain and heart tissue and Trypanosoma cruzi in Chagas disease. Many other examples of autoantibodies cross-reacting with...

Autoimmunity Can Be Induced Experimentally in Animals

Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) can be induced in a number of animals by immunizing with thy-roglobulin in complete Freund's adjuvant. Both humoral antibodies and TH1 cells directed against the thyroglobulin develop, resulting in thyroid inflammation. EAT appears to best mimic Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In contrast to both EAE and EAT, which are induced by immunizing with self-antigens, autoimmune arthritis (AA) is induced by immunizing rats with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in complete Freund's adjuvant. These animals develop an arthritis whose features are similar to those of rheumatoid arthritis in humans.

Septic arthritis See infective arthritis

The capsule shows an increase in fibrous tissue and shrinks, thus limiting movement of the joint. It affects about 2 percent of the population but is more common in association with certain other disorders. These include thyroid disease, tuberculosis, lung cancer, after a heart attack or stroke, and especially, diabetes. Some diabetics, 10-20 percent, will develop a frozen shoulder at some stage. Having a frozen shoulder on one side increases the risk of having it on the other side to about 10 percent. The frozen shoulder goes through three stages. The first stage is painful and lasts about three months. The second typically lasts for six months (there is less pain in this stage but worsening limitation of movement). in the third phase there is gradual lessening of pain and increase in movement. This process may take one to three years.

Clinical manifestations

Some endocrine gland dysfunction can be observed in a significantly higher number of MC patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls in particular, diabetes mellitus type II, thyroid, and gonadal dysfunction (Ferri et al., 2002a, 2004 Antonelli et al., 1999, 2004). The B-cell lymphomas represent the most frequent neoplastic complication of MC (Ferri et al., 2000, 2002a, 2004). Other neoplastic complications of MC, i.e. hepatocellular carcinoma and papillary thyroid cancer, are less frequently observed, often as late manifestations of the MC syndrome (Ferri et al., 1996, 2000, 2002a, 2004 Antonelli et al., 1999). In this light, the MC can be regarded as a pre-neoplastic disorder (Ferri et al., 2000, 2002a, 2004).

Mineral Elements Micro Trace

The best characterized and probably the most important function of trace elements is their catalytic roles in enzyme and hormone systems. As presented in Table 1, these elements serve as 1) integral components of metalloenzymes such as copper, zinc, and manganese in superoxide dismutases or selenium in glutathione perox-idase 2) activators or inhibitors of certain enzymes and 3) structure components of hormones or their complexes such as iodine in thyroid hormones and zinc in insulin. Certain trace elements are essential components of metabolically important compounds such as iron in hemoglobin and cobalt in vitamin B12. Although trace elements, similar to the macro ones, are normally thyroid hormones, A component of at least 15 enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, involved in protecting biological membranes, proteins, and lipids from oxidative degeneration important for thyroid hormone metabolism and reproduction closely linked to vitamin E function

Naa Autoimmune Disorder

It has been suggested that avoidance of autoim-munization of self peptides, presented by the HLA class II molecules, stems from the failure of the cell to express these antigens. Aberrant expression of HLA glycoproteins (provoked by stimuli such as interferon administration) could play a key role in the evolution of autoimmunity 26 . This concept has been supported by studies showing that thyroid epithelial cells acquired antigen presenting properties following viral infections or stimulation by -interferon. Subacute thyroiditis Multiple sclerosis Systemic lupus erythematosus Graves's disease Goodpasture's syndrome

Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis

Tracheostomy And Vocal Cords

In patients with bilateral vocal cord paralysis, the classic treatment has been an arytenoidectomy, either performed endoscopically or from the laryngofissure approach.8,9 If a patient has arytenoid fixation, either traumatic or from rheumatoid arthritis, this is still the procedure of choice. The arytenoid is removed and the posterior cord is sutured laterally to the thyroid cartilage. If the arytenoids are mobile, a simpler technique is to endoscopically lateralize the vocal cord.10-12 A no. 20 spinal needle is passed through the skin under binocular vision, using the laryngoscope with the Lewy suspension attached. With one eye looking through the laryngoscope and the other eye on the needle, one can quite accurately aim the needle, so that when it penetrates the thyroid cartilage, it will come out at the level of the vocal process. One needle is placed below the cord and the other into the ventricle so that it comes out above the cord. The obturators are removed and a no. 0 or 2-0...

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Antineoplastic Drugs

Serum digoxin in patients with thyroid disease. Br Med J 1975 3(5983) 566-568. 87. Kurnik D, Loebstein R, Farfel Z, Ezra D, et al. Complex drug-drug disease interactions between amiodarone, warfarin and the thyroid gland. Medicine (Baltimore) 2004 83 107-113. 98. Soldin OP. Thyroid function testing in pregnancy and thyroid diseases trimester-specific reference intervals. Ther Drug Monit 2006 28 8-11.

Humoral Immune Responses

Autoimmune diseases occur when the adaptive immune system mounts a sustained response against self antigens resulting in long term tissue damage. Autoanti-bodies can cause destruction as in the case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Autoantibodies can also be stimulatory. In Grave's disease antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor are formed which stimulate thyroid hormone release resulting in thyrotoxicosis. Autoantibodies can also cause hypofunction of an organ. In myasthenia gravis antibodies form against the acetylcholine receptor on motor end plates causing the receptor to become depleted which results in muscle weakness. In systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis a myriad of autoantibodies form as well as altered cell mediated immunity result in tissue damage characteristic of each of these diseases.

The Neural Circuitry Of Regulation Of Energy Balance

Pestle And Swot Interrelatedness

The cloning and characterization of the ob gene showed that it encodes a hormone, named leptin, that is expressed abundantly in adipose tissue. The db gene encodes the receptor for leptin. Levels of leptin are proportional to adipose tissue mass. The discovery of leptin was received with great enthusiasm, since it was thought that a drug mimicking leptin could treat the obesity epidemic. The clinical phenotype of human congenital leptin deficiency is very similar to that seen in the ob ob mouse. Both leptin-deficient humans and mice have early-onset obesity, increased food intake, hypo gonadism, hyper-insulinaemia and defective function of the hypothalamo-pituitary thyroidal axis. Thus, leptin plays a similar role in mice and humans. Indeed treatment with leptin of these rare cases of obese individuals carrying mutations in the leptin gene, is very successful to normalise body weight and neuroendocrine functioning (Farooqi et al., 2002). However, most obese people have plenty of...

Somastatin And Rheumatoid Artritis

Somatostatin anlogues in the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Thyroid 1998 8 443-445. 53. Kirkegaard C, Norgaard K, Snorgaard O et al. Effect of one year continuous subcutaneous infusion of a somatostatin analogue, octreotide, on early retinopathy, metabolic control and thyroid function in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1990 122(6) 766-72.

Meat Animal Glands And Organs

Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands and tissues including the liver, lungs, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, stomach, parathyroid, kidney, and adrenal, and the ovary at various stages. These glands and tissues are collected from healthy animals, sent to pharmaceutical companies for processing, and are used as medicines. The pituitary gland produces growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, mammary stimulating hormone, and adrenocortical stimulating hormone. These hormones control growth and metabolism, and regulate the activity of other endocrine glands. Adrenocortical stimulating hormone is the main hormone extracted from the pituitary and is used in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, eye inflammation, and multiple myeloma. 2

Herpes simplex 6 See roseola infantum

Early sign of multiple endocrine neoplasia III (MEN type III) where multiple tumors occur within the first decade of life on lips, eyelids and oral mucosa. Medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, intestinal ganglioneuromas and Marfanoid features are the main characteristics of the syndrome.

Alzheimers Disease and Alzheimers Dementia

Other purported risk factors are weaker and some are more controversial in that not all well-controlled epidemiological studies have found them to be significant. These risk factors include limited education, depression, gender, estrogen replacement therapy, use of vitamin E, head trauma, use of anti-inflammatory drugs, and a history of thyroid disease. Basic laboratory and general health measures are also essential. Cognitive decline has very different implications in a smoker with active lung cancer, severe anemia, or disseminated intravascular coagulation, for example, than in a previously healthy octogenarian. Recent chest x-ray study, electrocardiogram, urinalysis, complete blood counts, and a chemistry profile (which should include electrolytes, calcium, fasting blood glucose, and renal and liver function tests) are not specifically neurological but can be very relevant if they disclose a severe abnormality. Thyroid function tests and vitamin B 12 should be assessed. The actual...

Which bones am I more likely to break

For all women with or without osteoporosis who are 50 years or older, the lifetime risk of fracturing any bone is about 40 , though most fractures occurring after age 50 are related to osteoporosis. For all U.S. adults, the lifetime risk of fracturing a bone is greater than the combined risk of developing breast, uterine, or ovarian cancers. If you are a woman, the risk of fracturing your hip, your spine, or your wrist is between 15 and 18 each. If you are a white elderly woman who either has hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), cannot get out of a chair without using your arms, or has a resting pulse rate of over 80 beats per minute, the risk for fracturing your hip is about 70 . If your only risk factor is that your mother broke her hip, then your risk is about 80 . But it's only about 50 if you fractured any of your bones since the age of 50. Even without any of these specific risk factors, age increases your risk for fracture by about 40 every 5 years. Your risk for hip fracture...

Static Biochemical Tests

Plasma proteins are albumin, transport proteins (transthyretin (TTR) involved in thyroid hormone transport and formerly called prealbumin, retinol binding protein (RBP), and transferrin (TF)) and fibronectin (FB an apsonic glycoprotein). Serum albumin, measured by an automated dye-binding method, has a rather large body pool and a long half-life and so it is a less sensitive index of immediate nutritional status. TTR, complexed with RBP in the carriage of vitamin A, TF, and FB have a smaller pool size and a shorter half-life than serum albumin and so their concentrations can change more rapidly. Therefore, they are immediate indicators of protein status. Plasma transport proteins are usually measured on radial immunodiffusion plates or alternatively with laser nephelometry. Useful commercial kits are available. Plasma fibronectin is measured only with laser nephelometry. Albumin and transport proteins are negative acute phase reactants. Other confounding effects of protein-losing...

Etiology of Thyrotoxicosis

Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism (80 ) and usually is seen in women, especially between the ages of 30 and 50 years. It is an autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies that activate the TSH receptor of the thyroid follicular cell, stimulating thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion as well as thyroid gland growth. These antibodies cross the placenta and can cause neonatal thyrotoxicosis. The disease might follow a relapsing and remitting course. Graves disease is marked by goiter (enlarged thyroid gland), thyroid bruit, hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy, and dermopathy. These features are variably present. Ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation of extraocular muscles, orbital fat, and connective tissue, resulting in proptosis (exophthalmos), impairment of eye muscle function, and periorbital edema. Ophthalmopathy can progress even after treatment of thyrotoxicosis. Graves dermopathy is characterized by raised hyperpigmented orange peel texture...

Osteoporosis Are You at Risk

Taking high doses of thyroid medication, or high or prolonged doses of cortisonelike medication for asthma, arthritis, or other diseases Some medications. The use of some medications is linked significantly to increased risk for osteoporosis ongoing use of steroids, thyroid medicine, and cortisone-like medications. Some health conditions increase risk, too.

Morphea See scleroderma

Other organs, including the lungs, heart, stomach, thyroid, and bone marrow may be affected. There may be a mild anemia, raised ESR, and moderately high cholesterol, but none of these help with the diagnosis. X rays show destructive joint lesions that are difficult to differentiate from rheumatoid arthritis. Biopsy of the skin nodules or joint lining (synovium) shows the typical fat-filled cells. Many conditions are associated with multicentric reticulo-histiocytosis. Nearly 50 percent of patients react positively to a skin test for tuberculosis (TB), and a few patients have had active TB. About a third have other skin lesions, suggesting raised cholesterol (xanthelasma), and a number have had autoimmune diseases. About a quarter have had cancers of various kinds. These have included cancer of the breast, stomach, lung, bowel, cervix, ovary, and blood and also melanoma. Although about 80 percent of patients with myas-thenia gravis have antibodies against acetylcholine receptors, the...

Cause of Primary Immunodeficiencies

Autoantibodies occur more often in patients with primary immunodeficiencies than in healthy people, and autoimmune illness can occur. This is most common in CVID, affecting approximately 20 percent of patients. A range of autoimmune disorders can occur, including thyroid disease, hematological disease, polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid

Wob Pulmonary Physical Examination

Diagnosis may be made by visualization of an enhancing structure on computed tomography (CT) radioactive iodine scanning is useful in management as it may make the diagnosis if the mediastinal tissue is functional and will also document the presence of functioning cervical thyroid tissue to prevent removal of all functional thyroid tissue during medi-astinal excision. and may be seen with asthma, sarcoidosis, diabetes, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. A mnemonic for hoarseness is VINDICATE Vascular (thoracic aneurysm), Inflammation, Neoplasm, Degenerative (i.e., amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), Intoxication (smoking, alcohol), Congenital (laryngeal web), Allergies, Trauma, and Endocrine (thyroiditis). 3-26. The answer is b. (Stobo, 23 e, pp 293-298.) This patient has clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Most patients with thyrotoxicosis have increases in total and free concentrations of T3 and T4. (Some may have isolated T3 or...

Lungs Involvement In Lymphoma

Pneumocystis Pneumonie Bilder

Prior radiographs to show that a nodule is new, other considerations should include granuloma, amyloid, or hamartoma. Metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma originating from the pancreas, small bowel, or ovary thyroid carcinoma and on rare occasions soft tissue sarcomas and choriocarcinoma may also contain calcifications.114-119 Endobronchial obstruction of an airway by metastasis is rare the reported incidence is 2 .135 The most common tumor to metastasize to the airways is renal cell carcinoma.125,136,137 Other tumors that spread to the airways include melanoma, lymphoma, and tumors of the breast, larynx, thyroid, and colon.125,135-138 Patients with tumor involving the airways frequently have metastases to other areas of the thorax, including the lymph nodes and pulmonary parenchyma.136 The proximal airways, rather than the small airways, are generally involved. Complete occlusion results in mucous filling of the distal occluded airways. On CT images, these occluded airways appear as...

Gastric causes of cobalamin malabsorption

These antibodies are also found more frequently in patients with simple atrophic gastritis, chronic active hepatitis and thyroid disorders and their relatives, as well as in Addison's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and other conditions. The parietal cell antibody is directed against the a- and P-subunits of the gastric proton pump (H+,K+-ATPase). The sera of PA patients may also contain an autoantibody to the gastrin receptor, although this test is not used clinically. Association with other 'autoimmune' diseases There is a clinical association between PA and thyroid diseases, vitiligo, hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease. These diseases are often found in close relatives of patients with overt disease due to one of these conditions.

Consequences of autoimmunity

And although these antibodies are present at higher titers in about 70 of Hashimoto's disease patients, it is autoantibodies to another thyroid component, thyroid peroxidase, which show a stronger correlation with histopathological lesions. These autoantibodies occur in 95 of patients with Hashimoto's disease and, unlike most thyroglobulin autoantibodies, are complement fixing and therefore potentially cytotoxic to thyroid epithelial cells. Another example underlining the distinction between autoimmunity and disease is seen in patients treated for longer than 1 year with the drug procainamide (used to control cardiac arrhythmia). Over 90 of these patients develop IgM antibodies reactive with a broad spectrum of self histones but it is only in the 10-20 of patients who develop high levels of IgG antibodies specific for the H2A-H2B histone dimer bound to DNA that a lupus-like autoimmune disease arises. In the case of immunoglobulin, different parts of the same molecule can elicit both...

Autoantibodies Associated with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the inflammatory, primarily T cell-mediated, chronic destruction of intrahepatic microscopic bile ducts of unknown etiology. In 90 of cases it affects women who exhibit elevated immunoglobulin M, anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) directed against the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH-E2), and a cholestatic liver enzyme profile leading to cirrhosis over the course of years or decades. A prominent feature is the presence of extrahepatic immune-mediated disease associations, including autoimmune thyroid disease, Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and, less frequently, celiac disease and CREST syndrome. Extra-hepatic syndromes frequently precede hepatic disease manifestation 64-66 .

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