1. Symmetrical involvement of the synovial joints of the appendicular skeleton (hands, feet, wrists, knees, elbows, and shoulders most involved); soft tissue swelling; osteoporosis; joint space narrowing; marginal bony erosions; subchondral cyst formation; j oint ankylosis, deformity, and dislocation (rheumatoid arthritis)
2. Synovial and cartilaginous articulations involved; preferential involvement of the joints in the axial skeleton (sacroiliac, apophyseal, discovertebral, and costovertebral articulation); characteristic pattern of spinal ascent; involvement of entheses; joint space narrowing and erosion; marginal sclerosis; bone formation within joint capsule, tendons, and ligaments; joint ankylosis (ankylosing spondylitis)
3. Synovial and cartilaginous articulations involved; asymmetrical involvement of the appendicular (upper and lower limb) and axial joints; prominent involvement of the interphalangeal articulations of hands and feet; osteolysis of terminal phalanges; bone formation within joint capsule, tendons, and ligaments; intra-articular bony anky-losis (psoriasis)
4. Synovial and cartilaginous articulations involved with findings reminiscent of psoriasis; asymmetrical involvement of the appendicular (lower limb) and axial joints; calcaneal enthesopathy; resolution of some lesions (Reiter's disease)
5. Erosive arthritis of the distal and proximal inter-phalangeal joints, metacarpophalangeal joints, 1st carpometacarpal joints, and inferior radioulnar joints; tuftal resorption; skin atrophy; soft tissue calcification (scleroderma)
6. Bilateral short hallux; short thumbs (less common); heterotopic ossification of striate muscles; 'pseudoexostoses' at insertion points of tendons, ligaments, fasciae, and aponeuroses; ankylosis of spine, shoulders, hips, temporomandibular joints, etc. (fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva syndrome)
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Thank you for deciding to learn more about the disorder, Osteoarthritis. Inside these pages, you will learn what it is, who is most at risk for developing it, what causes it, and some treatment plans to help those that do have it feel better. While there is no definitive “cure” for Osteoarthritis, there are ways in which individuals can improve their quality of life and change the discomfort level to one that can be tolerated on a daily basis.