Radiographic Synopsis

AP, LL and oblique projections (depending on the anatomical site being investigated)

1. Hypoplasia of capitellum and radial head; hypoplasia of the lateral aspect of distal humerus; increased carrying angle of elbow; hypoplastic/ absent patellas; hypoplasia of the lateral portions of the distal femoral epiphyses (nail-patella syndrome)

2. In infancy, delayed bone age; cortical thickening of the tubular bones, with moderate bone sclerosis; in childhood, retarded and irregular epi-physeal ossification (epiphyseal dysgenesis); irregular mineralization of metaphyses (hypothy-roidism)

3. In infancy, delayed bone age with absent ossification of the knee epiphyses and pubic bones; in childhood, severely retarded ossification of femoral heads and necks; varying degrees of epi-physeal and metaphyseal abnormalities (spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita)

4. Irregular epiphyses (flat in Ribbing type, small in Fairbank type); mild shortening of tubular bones; normal metaphyses; early, progressive osteo-arthritis (multiple epiphyseal dysplasia)

5. Irregular, late-appearing proximal femoral epi-physes; in childhood, large and deformed epiphy-ses; short and broad femoral necks; broad meta-physes; short tubular bones (Kniest dysplasia)

6. In childhood, mild epiphyseal dysplasia most prominent at proximal femurs and distal tibias; asymmetrical hypoplasia of distal tibial epiphysis with external slanting of the talar dome; in adulthood, secondary degenerative arthropathy (Stickler syndrome)

7. Deficient ossification of the lateral portions of proximal tibial epiphysis and metaphysis; downward slanting of the lateral end of proximal tibias; knock-knee deformity (chondroectodermal dys-plasia)

8. Coarse trabecular pattern ('flocky' ossification) of the bone structure of metaphyses and epiphyses; severe epiphyseal deformation (parastremmatic dwarfism)

9. Late-appearing, small, irregular femoral heads; mild irregularities of proximal femoral metaphy-ses; spontaneous resolution of the abnormalities, with formation of normal femoral heads (Meyer dysplasia)

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