References

Adak B, Tekeoglu I, Sakarya ME, Ugras S. Progressive pseudo-rheumatoid chondrodysplasia a hereditary disorder simulating rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 1998 17 343-5 Babcock D, Gasner C, Francke U, Maslen C. A single mutation that results in an Asp to His substitution and partial exon skipping in a family with congenital contractural arachn-odactyly. Hum Genet 1998 103 22-8 Beighton P, Horan F. Orthopaedic aspects of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1969 51 444-53...

Acetabular Abnormalities

The head of the femur and the acetabulum are anatomically and functionally related in such a way that changes in either component induce a response in the other. This holds true both for the immature and for the mature skeleton. The acetabulum is cartilaginous at birth, with a Y-shaped physeal plate (the triradiate cartilage) located between the ilium, ischium, and pubis. The fully developed acetabulum is a hemispheric cavity made deeper by a bony rim lining its contour, to which is attached a...

Radiographic Synopsis

AP, lateral, and oblique projections. Care is needed during film exposure to avoid faulty finger positioning 1. Congenital flexion contracture at proximal inter-phalangeal joints, commonly the 5th (isolated camptodactyly) 2. Congenital flexion contracture at proximal inter-phalangeal joints osteoporosis and flattening of metacarpal heads large joint arthritis (arthropa-thy-camptodactyly syndrome) 3. Uni- or bilateral late-onset flexion contracture of the 4th and 5th fingers (Dupuytren...

Abnormalities of Joint Position

Joint Anomalies

There are five different clinical situations that are consistently associated with joint subluxation and or dislocation (a) trauma (b) inflammatory joint diseases (c) disorders with muscular imbalance (d) disorders with joint laxity and (e) disorders with defective development of the osseous components of the joint. A discussion of the clinical and radiographic manifestations of joint subluxation dislocation related to trauma and inflammatory disorders is beyond the scope of this book. Among...

Carpal Angle Abnormalities

Turner Syndrome Drumstick Phalanges

Variations in the relative position of proximal carpals scaphoid, lunate and triquetrum The carpal bones in the proximal row articulate with the distal radius and ulna. The articular surface of the radius is divided by a central ridge of bone into a lateral portion, articulating with the scaphoid, and a medial portion, articulating with the lunate. The distal ulna articulates with the os triquetrum through the triangular fibrocartilage. The os pisiform, which is located lateral to the...

Carpal Abnormalities

There is a wide range of variation in the shape and size of the carpal bones among individuals. These variations are sometimes only apparent, reflecting differences in position of the wrist during film exposure Poznanski 1984 . The scaphoid, lunate, and trapezium are particularly subject to variation, specifically in the onset of ossification, pattern of ossification, and progress of maturation Gupta and Al-Moosawi 2002 . Marginal notches, small bone cysts, and bone partitions are common...

Atlantoaxial Instability

Persistent Apophysis Cervical

Excessive mobility at the atlanto-axial articulation, which is prone to dislocation The primary motion at the C1-2 joint is rotation rather than flexion or extension. The dens is tightly bound to C-1 by the transverse ligament, which prevents forward subluxation of the atlas during neck flexion and extension. Incompetence of the transverse ligament due to rupture or ligamentous laxity results in excessive nonphysiologic movements of the atlas instability, subluxation or complete loss of joint...

Sternal Abnormalities

Double Manubrial Ossification

As mentioned in previous sections, disturbances of endochondral ossification and growth of the sternum and ribs are key elements in the development of pectus deformities in children and adolescents Haje et al. 1999 Sadler 2000 . Growth and development of the sternum is not only influenced by genetic factors, but also just as much by biomechanical factors Wong and Carter 1988 . A considerable number of developmental defects of the sternum and anterior chest wall are recognized. Some are...

Clinodactyly

Brachymesophalangy

Deviation of a finger in the mediolateral plane Clinodactyly is a common finger defect, often occurring as an isolated anomaly devoid of clinical significance. The incidence has not been established precisely because of the difficulty of definition, but it is thought to be in the range of 0.1-1.0 of the general white population. The incidence is higher in non-whites. Although any finger can be involved, and the curvature can be to either the radial or the ulnar side of the hand Burke and Flatt...

Scapular Abnormalities

Glenoid Dysplasia

In this section some of the commonest scapular abnormalities are reviewed, with special reference to those useful in the radiographic recognition of malformation syndromes and skeletal dysplasias. A number of additional congenital anomalies of the scapula, often occurring as isolated defects of minor diagnostic value, are not discussed in detail. These anomalies include elongated acromion, absent acromion, double acromion and coracoid, clasp-like superior border of the scapula, coracoclavicular...