The growing knowledge on the incidence of somatostatin receptors and on their functions as well as the development of new molecules created the new possibilities of clinical application of SST analogs. The further progress could be expected in diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, cancers and the autoimmune/inflammatory diseases with "classical" and/or novel SST analogs.
This review was supported by a grant no. 502-11-295 from Medical University of Lodz.
1. Hofland LJ, van der Hoek J, van Koetsveld PM et al. The novel somatostatin analog SOM230 is a potent inhibitor of growth hormone release by growth hormone- and prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:1577-1585.
2. Rocheville M, Lange DC, Kumar U et al. Receptors for dopamine and somatostatin: Formation of hetro-oligomers with enhanced functional activity. Science 2000; 288:154-157.
3. Saveanu A, Lavaque E, Gunz C et al. Demonstration of enhanced potency of a chimeric somatostatin/dopamine molecule, BIM-23A387, in suppressing growth hormone and prolactin secretion from human pituitary somatotroph adenoma cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87:5545-5552.
4. Warnet A, Harris AG, Renard E et al. Prospective multicenter study trial of octreotide in 24 patients with visual defects caused by nonfunctioning and gonadotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery 1997; 41:786-795.
5. Colao A, Filippella M, Di Somma C et al. Somatostatin analogs in treatment of nongrowth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas. Endocrine 2003; 20:279-283.
6. Hofland LJ, Lamberts SW. Somatostatin receptors in pituitary function, diagnosis and therapy. Front Horm Res 2004; 32:235-252.
7. van der Hoek J, Waaijers M, van Koetsveld PM et al. Distinct functional properties of native somatostatin receptor subtype 5 compared with subtype 2 in the regulation of ACTH release by corticotroph tumor cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2005; 289:E278-E287.
8. Pawlikowski M, Pisarek H, Kunert-Radek J et al. Immunohistochemical detection of somatostatin receptor subtypes in "clinically nonfunctioning" pituitary adenomas. Endocrine Pathol 2003; 14:231-238.
9. Zatelli MC, Piccin D, Bottoni A et al. Evidence for differential effects of selective somatostatin receptor subtype agonists on alpha-subunit and chromogranin A secretion and on cell viability in human nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:5180-5188.
10. Gruszka A, Kunert-Radek J, Radek A et al. The effect of selective sst1, sst2, sst5 somatostatin receptors agonists, a somatostatin/dopamine (SST/DA) chimera and bromocriptine on the "clinically nonfunctioning" pituitary adenomas in vitro. Life Sci 2006; 78:689-693.
11. Pawlikowski M, Kunert-Radek J, Stepien H. Somatostatin inhibits the mitogenic effect of thyroliberin. Experientia 1978; 34:271-271.
12. Mascardo RN, Sherline P. Somatostatin inhibits rapid centrosomal separation and cell proliferation induced by epidermal growth factor. Endocrinology 1982; 111(4):1394-6.
13. Reubi JC. Octreotide and nonendocrine tumors: Basic knowledge and therapeutic potential. In: Scarpignato C, ed. Octreotide: From Basic Science to Clinical Medicine, Vol. 10. Basel: Karger, 1996:246-269.
14. Weckbecker G, Stolz B, Susini Ch et al. Antiproliferative somatostatin analogues with potential in oncology. In: Lamberts SWJ, ed. Octreotide: The Next Decade. Bristol: BiosSientifica Ltd., 1999:339-352.
15. Reubi JC, Laissue J, Krenning E et al. Somatostatin receptors in human cancer: Incidence, characteristics, functional correlates and clinical implications. J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol 1992; 43(1-3):27-35.
16. Reubi JC, Horisberger U, Laissue J. High density of somatostatin receptors in veins surrounding human cancer tissue: Role in tumor-host interaction? Int J Cancer 1994; 56(5):681-8.
17. Reubi JC, Schaer JC, Waser B et al. Expression and localization of somatostatin receptor SSTR1, SSTR2, and SSTR3 messenger RNAs in primary human tumors using in situ hybridization. Cancer Res 1994; 54(13):3455-9.
18. Patel YC. Somatostatin and its receptor family. Front Neuroendocrinol 1999; 20(3):157-98.
19. Ferjoux G, Bousquet C, Cordelier P et al. Signal transduction of somatostatin receptors negatively controlling cell proliferation. J Physiol Paris 2000; 94(3-4):205-10.
20. Sharma K, Patel YC, Srikant CB. C-terminal region of human somatostatin receptor 5 is required for induction of Rb and G1 cell cycle arrest. Mol Endocrinol 1999; 13(1):82-90.
21. Sharma K, Patel YC, Srikant CB. Subtype-selective induction of wild-type p53 and apoptosis, but not cell cycle arrest, by human somatostatin receptor 3. Mol Endocrinol 1996; 10(12):1688-96.
22. Woltering EA, Barrie R, O'Dorisio TM et al. Somatostatin analogues inhibit angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane. J Surg Res 1991; 50(3):245-51.
23. Woltering EA. Development of targeted somatostatin-based antiangiogenic therapy: A review and future perspectives. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2003; 18:601-609.
24. Watson JC, Balster DA, Gebhardt BM et al. Growing vascular endothelial cells express somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Br J Cancer 2001; 85(2):266-72.
25. Ten Bokum AMC, Hofland LJ, van Hagen PM. Somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in the immune system: A review. Eur Cytokine Net 2000; 11:161-167.
26. Kouroumalis E, Skordilis P, Thermos K et al. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with octreotide: A randomised controlled study. Gut 1998; 42:442-447.
27. Vainas G, Pasaitou V, Galaktidou G et al. The role of somatostatin analogues in complete antiandrogen treatment in patients with prostatic carcinoma. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 1997; 16:119-126.
28. Bontenbal M, Foekens JA, Lamberts SWJ et al. Feasibility, endocrine and anti-tumour effects of a triple endocrine therapy with tamoxifen, a somatostatin analogue and an antiprolactin in post menopausal breast cancer: Randomized study with long-term follow-up. Br J Cancer 1998; 77:115-122.
29. Medenica R, Janssens J, Caglayan et al. Successful treatment of metastatic melanoma with pulse therapy schedule of chemotherapy, interferon alpha, interferon gamma, interleukin-2 and octreotide. J Interferon Cytokine Res 1997; 17(suppl 20):S 109.
30. Weckbecker G, Briner U, Lewis I et al. SOM230: A new somatostatin peptidomimetic with potent inhibitory effects on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in rats, primates, and dogs. Endocrinology 2002; 143(10):4123-30.
31. Reubi JC, Eisenwiener KP, Rink H et al. A new peptidic somatostatin agonist with high affinity to all five somatostatin receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 456(1-3):45-9.
32. Szende B, Keri GY. TT232: A somatostatin structural derivative as a potent antitumor drug candidate. Anticancer Drug 2003; 14:586-588.
33. Schally AV, Nagy A. Cancer chemotherapy based on targeting of cytotoxic peptide conjugates to their receptors on tumors. Eur J Endocrinol 1999; 141(1):1-14.
34. Nagy A, Schally AV, Halmos G et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of cytotoxic analogs of somatostatin containing doxorubicin or its intensely potent derivative, 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998; 95(4):1794-9.
35. Radulovic S, Nagy A, Szoke B et al. Cytotoxic analog of somatostatin containing methotrexate inhibits growth of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer xenografts in nude mice. Cancer Lett 1992; 62(3):263-71.
36. Plonowski A, Schally AV, Nagy A et al. Inhibition of metastatic renal cell carcinomas expressing somatostatin receptors by a targeted cytotoxic analogue of somatostatin AN-238. Cancer Res 2000; 60(11):2996-3001.
37. Plonowski A, Schally AV, Koppan M et al. Inhibition of the UCI-107 human ovarian carcinoma cell line by a targeted cytotoxic analog of somatostatin, AN-238. Cancer 2001; 92(5):1168-76.
38. Kiaris H, Schally AV, Nagy A et al. Regression of U-87 MG human glioblastomas in nude mice after treatment with a cytotoxic somatostatin analog AN-238. Clin Cancer Res 2000; 6(2):709-17.
39. Kiaris H, Schally AV, Nagy A et al. A targeted cytotoxic somatostatin (SST) analogue, AN-238, inhibits the growth of H-69 small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and H-157 nonSCLC in nude mice. Eur J Cancer 2001; 37(5):620-8.
40. Chang TC, Kao SC, Huang KM. Octreotide and Graves' ophtalmopathy and pretibial myxoedema. Brit Med Journal 1992; 304:158.
41. Krassas GE. Somatostatin anlogues in the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Thyroid 1998; 8:443-445.
42. Krassas GE. Ophthalmic Graves' disease: Clinical response to octreotide. In: Lamberts SWJ, Ghigo E, eds. The Expanding Role of Octreotide II: Advances in Endocrinology and Eye Diseases. Bristol: BioScientifica Ltd., 2002:115-128.
43. Ten Bokum AM, Melief MJ, Schonbrunn A et al. Immunohistochemical localization of somatosta-tin receptor sst2A in human rheumatoid synovium. J Rheumatol 1999; 26:532-535.
44. Takeba Y, Suzuki N, Takeno M et al. Modulation of synovial cell function by somatostatin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40:2128-2138.
45. van Hagen PM, Markusse HM, Lamberts SWJ et al. Somatostatin receptor imaging. The presence of somatostatin receptors in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37:1521-1527.
46. Coari G, Di-Franco M, Iagnocco A et al. Intra-articular somatostatin-14 reduced synovial thickness in rheumatoid arthritis: An ultrasonographic study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 1995; 15:27-32.
47. Paran D, Elkayam O, Mayo A et al. A pilot study of a long acting somatostatin analogue for the treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2001; 60:888-891.
48. Koseoglu F, Koseoglu T. Long acting somatostatin analogue for the treatment of refractory RA. Ann Rheum Dis 2002; 61:573-574.
49. Grant MB, Caballero S, Millard WJ. Inhibition of IGF-I and b-FGF stimulated growth of human retinal endothelial cells by the somatostatin analogue, octreotide: A potential treatment for ocular neovascularization. Regul Pept 1993; 48(1-2):267-78.
50. Burgos R, Simo R, Audi L et al. Vitreous levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are not influenced by its serum concentrations in diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia 1997; 40(9):1107-9.
51. van Hagen PM, Baarsma GS, Mooy CM et al. Somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in retinal diseases. Eur J Endocrinol 2000; 143(Suppl 1):S43-51.
52. Thermos K. Functional mapping of somatostatin receptors in the retina: A review. Vision Res 2003; 43(17):1805-15.
53. Kirkegaard C, Norgaard K, Snorgaard O et al. Effect of one year continuous subcutaneous infusion of a somatostatin analogue, octreotide, on early retinopathy, metabolic control and thyroid function in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1990; 122(6):766-72.
54. Grant MB, Mames RN, Fitzgerald C et al. The efficacy of octreotide in the therapy of severe nonproliferative and early proliferative diabetic retinopathy: A randomized controlled study. Diabetes Care 2000; 23(4):504-9.
55. Boehm BO, Lang GK, Jehle PM et al. Octreotide reduces vitreous hemorrhage and loss of visual acuity risk in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Horm Metab Res 2001; 33(5):300-6.
Acromegaly 33, 40, 41, 47-50, 52, 53, 91 Adenoma 4, 15, 24-27, 30, 31, 33, 34, 39-44,
47-49, 52, 53, 75, 91, 92 Adrenal tumor 39, 42 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 33,
40, 75, 91, 92 Agonist 7, 14-16, 27-34, 44, 50, 51, 65,
47-53, 57-65, 69-78, 80-86, 91-96 Angiogenesis 8, 62, 70, 72, 82, 92, 93, 95 Antagonist 14-16, 21, 26-29, 32, 50 Apoptosis 5, 8, 14, 61, 70, 83, 92, 93 Autoimmune disease 91, 95, 96
BIM-23A387 31, 34, 91
BIM-23244 24, 25, 27
Was this article helpful?
Did You Know That Herbs and Spices Have Been Used to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis Successfully for Thousands of Years Do you suffer with rheumatoid arthritis Would you like to know which herbs and spices naturally reduce inflammation and pain 'Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis with Herbs, Spices and Roots' is a short report which shows you where to start.