Sodium Chloride To Fight Arthritis

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capsules for either once daily or twice a day dosing. It is intended for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. (10)

E) Cerebyx Injection is intended as a replacement for dilantin for both the preven-ion and treatment of seizures. (10)

(B) Celexa is available as 20- and 40-mg tablets for depression and is given once a day. (10)

(B) Besides Afrin, both Dristan 12-Hour and Neosynephrine 12-Hour sprays contain 0.05% oxymetazoline. (2b:137; 11:212)

(A) Aluminum hydroxide is a commonly used antacid because of its nonabsorbability demulcent activity and ability to adsorb pepsin. It is somewhat slow in respect to onset of action. A second antacid product with just aluminum hydroxide is Basaljel. (2a:207; 2b:164; 11:86)

(C) Magnesium trisilicate appears to be longer-acting than aluminum hydroxide. When it reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach, hydrated silicon dioxide, which may coat ulcers, is formed. Gaviscon and Gaviscon-2 contains alginic acid, which forms a viscous solution, thereby prolonging contact time. The product is claimed to be effective in the relief of gastroesophageal reflux. All of the other Gaviscon products (Extra Strength and Liquid) contain aluminum hydroxide and magnesium carbonate but no magnesium silicate. (1:888; 2a:207; 2b:165; 11:88)

(D) Calcium carbonate is often considered the antacid of choice because of its rapid onset of action, high neutralizing capacity, and relatively prolonged action. Side effects include constipation, which may be prevented by combining calcium carbonate with either magnesium carbonate or magnesium oxide. Prolonged use of calcium carbonate may result in the formation of urinary calculi. Also, increased blood levels of calcium have been reported. (2a:208; 2b:166; 11:87)

(B) Magnesium hydroxide has been mixed with aluminum hydroxide in an attempt to reduce the incidence of constipation attributed to the aluminum ion and reduce the incidence of diarrhea due to the magnesium ion. Most antacid products on the market consist of this combination. (2a:207; 2b:165; 11:87)

higher than that calculated by simple alligation. (1:1405; 24:302)

286. (B) Rubbing alcohol is a form of denatured alcohol containing approximately 70% of absolute alcohol. This product is used as a germicide and an external rubefacient. (1:1264; 24:302)

280. (C) The needle hub can be made of plastic or metal. It is fitted onto the syringe body either by a locking system such as the Luer-Lok or by a simple friction fit. (13:325)

281. (A) The bevel is ground to sharpness, but the back portion (heel) of the bevel is left dull. A dull heel has been shown to decrease the incidence of coring of the rubber closure and the skin. (13:325)

282. (B) Needle cannulae are made of various grades of steel. Both shaft strength and flexibility are needed. (13:325)

283. (E) The hole in the shaft is also called the bore. (23:325)

284. (D) Alcohol USP, sometimes known as grain alcohol, contains 94.9% V/V or 92.3% W/W of C2H5OH. The remaining portion is water.

285. (A) Diluted Alcohol is prepared by mixing equal volumes of Alcohol USP and Purified Water. Because of some volume shrinkage (about 3%), the final strength is somewhat

289. (E) Many OTC products intended for assisting in the removal of warts contain the kera-tolytic agent, 17% salicylic acid, in a collodion vehicle. Examples of products include Compound W, Duofilm, and Clear-Away. (11:561)

291. (E) The normal pH range for the blood is 7.36 to 7.40 for venous samples and 7.38 to 7.42 for arterial samples. It is essential that the blood pH remains within the range of 7.35 to 7.45. Normal acid-base balance is generally maintained by three homeostatic mechanisms using endogenous chemical buffers (eg, bicarbonate and carbonic acid), respiratory control, and renal function. An impairment in any of these mechanisms can result in either acidosis or alkalosis. (1:519; 24:104)

292. (E) The pH of the lacrimal fluid is approximately 7.4 but varies with certain ailments. The eye can tolerate a pH from 6 to 8 with a minimum of discomfort. The buffering system of the lacrimal fluid is efficient enough to adjust the pH of most ophthalmic solutions. However, some solutions, particularly those containing strongly acidic drugs, will cause discomfort. (24:474)

293. (B) The pH of the skin is usually based on measurements of the lipid film that covers the epidermis. Although the value varies greatly between individuals and in various areas of the body, the average value is re ported to be 5.5, with a range of 4.0 to 6.5.

294. (A) The acidic pH (3.5 to 4.2) of the vagina discourages the growth of pathogenic microorganisms while providing a suitable environment for the growth of acid-producing bacilli. (24:293)

304. (A) St. John's Wort may help cases of mild depression. Its active ingredient, hypericin, is believed to cause photodermatitis if light-skinned clients are exposed to direct sunlight.

305. (D) Saw Palmetto may be useful in treating symptoms of BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia). It appears to improve urinary flow in men with enlarged prostates. (2a:701; 11:770)

298. (B) Pennwalt's Tussionex is available in capsules, tablets, and suspension-dosage forms as a long-acting cough suppressant. (1:1669; 10; 24:235)

299. (E) Oramorph SR tablets consist of morphine sulfate in a hydrophilic matrix, which protects the interior of the tablet from disintegrating too rapidly. (1:961; 1667; 24:234)

300. (D) Repetabs are designed to release an initial dose, followed by a second dose from the inner core at a later time. This type of product reduces the number of doses the patient must take during the day. (1:1668; 24:236)

301. (C) The Durabond principle consists of com-plexing amine drugs with tannic acid to form the corresponding tannates. These relatively insoluble drug forms are released slowly over a 12-hour period. (10; 24:235)

302. (C) Echinacea is believed to reduce the severity of cold and flu symptoms, especially if consumed during the early stages of the exposure. (2a:710; 11:763)

303. (B) Some studies have indicated that Gingko extracts improve blood perfusion. There is hope that the herb will improve memory. A problem may occur if Gingko is taken by individuals being treated with anticoagulants. (2 a:703; 11:766)

310. (C) Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) is a urinary tract anesthetic and is available in tablet dosage form. Acetaminophen is inserted for its systemic analgesic properties. Ergotamine Tartrate and Caffeine Suppositories (Cafergot or Wigraine) are helpful in preventing or aborting vascular headaches such as migraine. Prochlorperazine (Compazine) and promethazine (Phenergan) possess antiemetic properties. The suppository dosage form of each allows convenient administration when a patient is actively vomiting or unconscious. (3; 24:291)

311. (E) Simethicone is an effective agent when taken orally to reduce gas discomfort in the GI tract. It aids in the coalescence of gas, which then can be discharged by belching or flatus. Infant's Myclicon Drops contain 20 mg of simethicone per 0.3 mL of liquid. There are also several simethicone-containing products for adults including Beano, Gas-X, and Phazyme. (2a:216; 11:110-11)

312. (C) Most nasal solutions are mildly buffered at pH's between 5.5 and 7.5 to prevent interference with normal cilia motion. The solutions should also be isotonic if possible.

313. (C) Buprion (Zyban) is used to aid in smoke cessation. It is available as 100- and 150-mg sustained-release tablets but not as a dermal patch. However, there are a number of nicotine patches on the market for smoke cessation. Scopolamine (Transderm Scop) is used to prevent motion sickness. Estradiol (Estra-derm, Vivelle, and Climara) patches reduce symptoms of postmenopause. Fentanyl (Duragesic) reduces chronic pain. Testosterone patches (Testoderm and Androderm) are used when there is a deficiency of testosterone. (24:267-69)

314. (E) Transdermal drug delivery systems deliver drugs at an optimal rate through the skin and avoid the hepatic first-pass effect. Since the patch needs replacement only once daily or up to once a week depending upon the drug involved, patient compliance improved. Since most of the drug is in the patch reservoir, relatively large amounts of drugs with short half-lives can be formulated into transdermal patches. One criteria is the ability of the drug to diffuse through the skin.

315. (A) Controlled studies of ginger root in the form of capsules indicate its ability to counteract mild cases of nausea and vomiting and also to prevent motion sickness. (2a:697; 11:766)

316. (D) Gauze that has been coated with a layer of emulsified petrolatum serves well as a primary cover over burns even if exudate is present. Not only will the exudate flow through the gauze, the gauze itself will not adhere to the wound. Typical products include J & J's Adaptic. (2a:640; 11:502)

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