S

Sacroiliac joint ankylosing spondylitis 136 investigation 153-154 pyogenic arthritis 162 tenderness over 148 'Sagging rope'sign 199 Salter-Thompson classification 169 Sarcoma, osteogenic, knee 242 Scaphoid examination 96 fracture 105 Seapholunate instability 93, 102 Scapula 50,58 high 56 movement 50 neurological assessment 18 pathology 56 shoulder abduction 51 snapping 56 winged 56 Scapulothoracic joint 50 Scheuermann's disease 135-136, 155, 161 Schmorl's nodes 131, 135, 142, 155, 156, 161 Schober's method 149

modified 149 Sciatic nerve 31 Sciatic pain 142 Scoliosis 133-135, 147. 177 compensatory 133 congenital 133, 156, 157 curve assessment 159 development 134 idiopathic 134. 148. 161 infantile 148, 160 inspection 147 investigations 134 metabolic 133

neuropathic 133 non-structural 133 paralytic 133 postural 133

primary and secondary curves 134 prognosis 134 radiography 157 sciatic 133

structural 133, 147, 164 treatment 134-135 Screening tests developmental dislocation of hip (DDH) 166

tibia 250 wrist 96 Semimembranosus bursae 203, 236 Senile kyphosis 137, 146, 155. 164 Sensory conductance 18 Sensory distributions femoral nerve 29 median nerve 24

peroneal nerve, common (lateral popliteal) 29

radial nerve 20

tibial nerve (medial popliteal) 30 ulnar nerve 21 Sensory disturbance joint examination 6 neurological assessment 18 sciatic nerve 31 Sesamoiditis 296 Sever's disease 277. 293, 302. 304

radiography 302. 304 Sharp point, disposable 9 Shenton's line 190 Shin splints 247 Shoes 299-300 Shoulder 49-72 abduction 51, 59-60 acromioclavicular dislocation 55-56 adduction 60. 61 age related to injury 57 anaesthetic injection 70 anatomy 50 aspiration 70 biceps tendon 56 caisson disease 68

calcifying supraspinatus tendinitis 53-54, 68

cervical spine and cervical spondylosis 52 examination 63 Charcot's disease 70 chondrosarcoma 69 clavicle and 56 coracoacromial ligament 52 crepitus 63 dislocation anterior 54-55 posterior 55 radiography 67 recurrent 54-55. 67. 69 sternoclavicular joint 57 drooping 35 elevation/depression 62 enchondroma 68 extension 61, 62 flexion 61 fracture 69

'frozen' 53

functional assessment 57, 58-71 idiopathic adhesive capsulitis 53 impingement syndrome 52 infections 55. 70. 71 inspection 58 instabilities 54-55 loose 54

mechanical problems 71 metastatic prostate carcinoma 69 movements 59-62 myotomes 15 neurological assessment 17 ossifying chondroma 68 osteoarthritis 54.68 osteoclastoma 69 pain 52.63

arc syndromes 71 dislocation 55 palpation 58-59 pathology 68-70

common 52 radiography 66-68 radionecrosis 54,68 rheumatoid arthritis 54 rotation 50.61-62 rotator cuff see Rotator cuff scapula see Scapula special investigations 70 Sprengel's 37, 58 subacromial joint 52 swelling 58 tuberculosis 55. 70 Silicone granuloma 278 Simian stance 146

Sinding-Larsen-Johansson syndrome 205, 222, 235

Single-photon emission controlled tomography (SPECT) 8 Sinus scars ankle 261 knee 217 Skew foot 276 Skin knee marks 217 nutrition examination 118 Slipped femora] epiphysis 170, 193, 198 Snapping joints ankle 259,266 hip 171

scapula/shoulder 56 Soft tissue injuries of ankle 257 inspection, leg 249 Soles of feet see Foot, sole Southwick's method 193 SPECT 8 Speed test 64

Spina bifida 140-141,156.157 inspection 147 Klippel—Feil syndrome 56 Spina bifida occulta 141.164 Spinal canal, stenosis see Spinal stenosis Spinal cord 12 Spina] cord compression

Cauda equina syndrome 140 cervical myelopathy 41 thoracic 153, 154 tuberculosis (TB) 137-138

Spinal nerve roots 13-14 Spinal nerves, segmental 12 Spinal stenosis 141, 146 cervical 35

differential diagnosis 143 Spine age-related complaints 145 anatomical features 130-131 ankylosing spondylitis 46, 136. 157, 161 anterior clefts 160 anterior notches 160 bamboo 157, 161 cervical see Cervical spine curvature 133 abnormal 47 reversed 45

see also Kyphosis; Scoliosis disc prolapse see Prolapsed intervertebral disc (PID) epiphysis 160 fracture 161

complications 141 'kissing spines' 140.156 lipping see Vertebrae, lipping lumbar see Lumbar spine movements 149-150 assessment 146 extension 150 flexion 149-150 lateral flexion 150 rotation 150 osteoarthritis 140. 156, 157. 163

cervical see Cervical spondylosis osteochondrosis 135-136 palpation 148 percussion 148 pyogenic osteitis 138-139 radiography 154-160 rheumatoid arthritis 140 surgery complications 141 thoracic see Thoracic spine tuberculosis see Tuberculosis tumours 37

metastatic lesions 139 vascular tracks 160 vertebrae see Vertebrae see also Back pain; Spinal cord compression; specific disorders Splay foot 279. 290. 300 Spondylolisthesis 139-140, 156. 158, 159, 162

complications 141 Spondylolysis 139-140, 159 Sprains ankle 257. 259 wrist 96 Sprengel's shoulder 37, 58 Standing apprehension test 232 Staphylococcus osteitis 55, 246

pyogenic arthritis of hip 169-170 Sternoclavicular joint 50 dislocation 57 prominent 58 tenderness 59 Straight leg-raising test 151, 250 Stress fracture 246-247

tibia 246-247. 252 Subacromial joint, compression beneath 52

Subdeltoid bursa, inflammation 53 Subluxation see Dislocation/subluxation Subscapularis. testing 61 Subtalar movements 272. 273. 298 Subungual exostosis 296 Sudeck's atrophy 90 ankle 268 foot 306 wrist 95,96,106 Sulcus sign 64

Superficial peroneal nerve compression syndrome 296 Superior calcaneal exostoses 293 Suprascapular nerve 65 Supraspinatus tendon calcification 66 calcifying tendinitis 53-54, 68 rotator cuff tears 52 testing 65 Surgery

American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons 57

hip replacement see Hip replacement spinal 141 Swan-neck deformity 116 Synostosis, congenital 83

radioulnar 84 Synovial chondromatosis 241 Synovitis knee 204 transient 168 villonodular 204 see also Tenosynovitis Syphilis 114.247

leg pain 250 Syringomyelia 134. 147

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