8.99. Pathology (11): There is calcification in an intervertebral disc with no significant narrowing of the corresponding disc space.

Diagnosis: This is an incidental finding, and is of no particular significance as a cause of low back pain.

8.100. Pathology (12): There is narrowing of the L5-S1 disc space, with anterior lipping of the corresponding vertebrae. Diagnosis: the appearances are typical of degenerative disc disease and lumbosacral osteoarthritis.

8.101. Pathology (13): There is striking alteration of bone texture affecting a single vertebra.

Diagnosis: this 'picture frame' appearance is typical of Paget's disease. At this site there would not necessarily be any associated symptoms.

Sacrum Cancer Symptoms

8.102. Pathology (14): There is a transitional vertebra. with the transverse process on one side articulating with both the sacrum and ilium.

Diagnosis: congenital abnormality of lumbosacral articulation. Some consider that this pattern of spinal anomaly, because it produces an asymmetrical distribution of local stresses, may be a cause of back pain.

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