L

Lachman test 229 active 228 prone 228 Lateral tomography 8 Leg see Lower limbs L'hermitte's test 42 Ligaments in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 93 see also individual ligaments Limbs lower see Lower limbs pain 248

segmental and peripheral nerves 11-32,

12, 13, 19 upper, thoracic outlet syndrome 40 Long thoracic nerve 65 Loose bodies ankle 259

elbow 76-77, 83, 86. 87 knee 211,241 Looser's zones 242 'Loose shoulder' 54 Losee pivot shift test 231 Lower limbs examination 250 inspection 249 pain 246-247 causes 247. 248 posterior aspect 247 ruptured plantaris tendon 247 thrombophlebitis 247 peripheral nerves 28 shortening 177-181 apparent 178 true 177-178.181 see also Tibia Lumbar spine 129-164 angular curvature 155 ankylosing spondylitis 136 arthritis 140

Calvé's disease 136, 156, 161 curvature 133, 146 see also Scoliosis disc calcification 155 disc prolapse 141-142

see also Prolapsed intervertebral disc (PID)

DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis) 46, 136-137 flattening 146 flexion 149-150 inspection 146 lordosis increased 135, 177 loss 135. 146 movements 131 Paget's disease 137 pyogenic osteitis 138-139 radiography 156 rotation 150

spina bifida see Spina bifida spondylolisthesis 139-140, 156. 158, 162

complications 141 spondylolysis 139-140, 159 tuberculosis see Tuberculosis (TB) see also Back pain; specific conditions Lumbosacral articulation 163 congenital abnormality 163 radiography 157 Lunate, spontaneous avascular necrosis see

Kienbock's disease Lunotriquetral instability 102

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Thank you for deciding to learn more about the disorder, Osteoarthritis. Inside these pages, you will learn what it is, who is most at risk for developing it, what causes it, and some treatment plans to help those that do have it feel better. While there is no definitive “cure” for Osteoarthritis, there are ways in which individuals can improve their quality of life and change the discomfort level to one that can be tolerated on a daily basis.

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