L

Lachman test 229 active 228 prone 228 Lateral tomography 8 Leg see Lower limbs L'hermitte's test 42 Ligaments in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome 93 see also individual ligaments Limbs lower see Lower limbs pain 248

segmental and peripheral nerves 11-32,

12, 13, 19 upper, thoracic outlet syndrome 40 Long thoracic nerve 65 Loose bodies ankle 259

elbow 76-77, 83, 86. 87 knee 211,241 Looser's zones 242 'Loose shoulder' 54 Losee pivot shift test 231 Lower limbs examination 250 inspection 249 pain 246-247 causes 247. 248 posterior aspect 247 ruptured plantaris tendon 247 thrombophlebitis 247 peripheral nerves 28 shortening 177-181 apparent 178 true 177-178.181 see also Tibia Lumbar spine 129-164 angular curvature 155 ankylosing spondylitis 136 arthritis 140

Calvé's disease 136, 156, 161 curvature 133, 146 see also Scoliosis disc calcification 155 disc prolapse 141-142

see also Prolapsed intervertebral disc (PID)

DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis) 46, 136-137 flattening 146 flexion 149-150 inspection 146 lordosis increased 135, 177 loss 135. 146 movements 131 Paget's disease 137 pyogenic osteitis 138-139 radiography 156 rotation 150

spina bifida see Spina bifida spondylolisthesis 139-140, 156. 158, 162

complications 141 spondylolysis 139-140, 159 tuberculosis see Tuberculosis (TB) see also Back pain; specific conditions Lumbosacral articulation 163 congenital abnormality 163 radiography 157 Lunate, spontaneous avascular necrosis see

Kienbock's disease Lunotriquetral instability 102

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Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis is a general term which is commonly associated with a number of painful conditions affecting the joints and bones. The term arthritis literally translates to joint inflammation.

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