Excessive Cubitus Valgus Angle Varies

Cubitus Valgus

Anatomical features 74 General points 74 Important relations 74 Elbow function 75 Tennis e bow 75 Cubitus varus and cubitus valgus elbow instability 75 Tardy ulnar nerve palsy 75 Ulnar neuritis and the ulnar tunnel syndrome 76 Osteoarthritis and osteochondritis d'ssecans 76 Rheumatoid arthritis 77 Tuberculosis of the elbow 77 Myositis ossificans 77 Inspection 78 Movements 79 Palpation 80-81 Tennis elbow tests 8 1 -82 Radiographs 82-84 Pathology 84-87 Aspiration of the elbow joint 87 The...

Fibrous Flexor Sheaths Fingers

Rheumatoid Arthritis Nodules Fingers

Most or all fingers affected. Frequent episodes, summer and winter Occupation changed to avoid further exposure to vibration because of severity of signs and symptoms See also under Rheumatoid arthritis. Mallet finger In a mallet finger the distal interphalangeal joint is held in a permanent position of flexion the deformity may be moderate or complete. The patient is unable to extend the distal joint of the finger, either not at all or only incompletely. The problem is...

Uncovertebral Osteophytes

Disc Osteophyte Complex

Radiographs 8 Proximal cranial migration of the odontoid process is also commonly seen in rheumatoid arthritis. In the adult this may be assessed by noting lhe distance between the pedicle P of C2 shown hatched and a line connecting the spinous process S with the arch A of CI. If this is less than 11.5 mm. proximal migration is considered to be present. pharyngeal shadow, which normally lies fairly close to the bodies of the vertebrae as at A . Displacement suggests a retropharyngeal...

Inferior Calcaneal Bursitis

Pes Planus Valgus Deformity

Inspection Great toe 4 Note the presence of excess callus under the great toe. This finding is highly suggestive of hallux rigidus. 13.28. Inspection Great toenail Note whether the great toenail is A deformed onychogryphosis , B ingrowing, possibly with accompanying inflammation, C elevated suggesting subungual exostosis , D uneven in texture and growth suggesting fungal infection or psoriasis . 13.26. Inspection Great toe 3 Note whether A the great toe is thickened at the MP joint,...

Guide To Painful Conditions Around The Ankle

Pain Front Lateral Malleolus

Sprain of lateral ligament Complete tear of lateral ligament Ankle fracture, fracture of the fifth metatarsal base Tibiofibular diastasis Ruptured Achilles tendon tendo calcaneus Complete tear of lateral ligament Secondary osteoarthritis e.g. previous ankle fracture Osteochondritis tali Rheumatoid arthritis Primary osteoarthritis Footballer's ankle Secondary osteoarthritis e.g. from osteochondritis tali Tenosynovitis Achilles tendinopathy Snapping peroneal tendons 12.1. Inspection 1 Look for A...

Radioulnar Synostosis

Ulnar Nerve Palsy

Inspection 6 The carrying angle may be measured with a goniometer. Average values of carrying angle Males 11 range 2 -26 Females 13 range 2 -22 . 5.7. Movements 1 Extension A Full extension, 0 , is present if the arm and forearm can be made to lie in a straight line. B Loss of full extension is especially common in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and old fractures particularly of the radial head involving the elbow joint. 5.8. Movements 2 Hyperextension If the elbow can he extended...

Simian Posture In Pagets Disease

Normal Spine Without Arthritis

Although usually suspected following history taking, clinical examination and the study of appropriate radiographs, the diagnosis is made largely by a process of elimination it is back pain which is not due to a prolapsed intervertebral disc or any other clearly defined pathology. The patient is usually in the 20 15-year age group, and complains of dull backache aggravated by activity. There is often a history of morning stiffness which is gradually relieved as the patient moves about. Physical...

Guide to commoner causes of leg pain

Curing Period Tibia Bone Fracture

Osteitis or other infections Bone tumour Bone tumours (especially osteoid osteoma, osteoclastoma, osteosarcoma) Brodie's abscess 11.1. Inspection (1) Soft tissue swelling Note the site and extent of any swelling. In the case of oedema, note particularly if bilateral (suggesting a general rather than a local cause). Unilateral leg oedema in women over 40 is a common sign of intrapelvic neoplasm. 11.2. Inspection (2) Localized oedema Localized oedema is common over inflammatory lesions and stress...

Additional Investigations

Infrapatellar Cavity Effusion

Occasionally a firm diagnosis cannot be made on the basis of the history and clinical examination alone. The following additional investigations are often a Arthroscopy may give much useful information, and in conjunction with the clinical examination will permit a firm, accurate diagnosis to be made in the majority of cases. Incorrect diagnoses are most common in lesions involving the menisci in their posterior thirds. An increasing number of conditions are amenable to arthroscopic surgery,...