Raynauds Phenomenon Glossary

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The following is a complete glossary of terms used in this sourcebook. The definitions are derived from official public sources including the National Institutes of Health [nih] and the European Union [eu]. After this glossary, we list a number of additional hardbound and electronic glossaries and dictionaries that you may wish to consult.

Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. It is generally not used as an administered drug because it is broken down very rapidly by cholinesterases, but it is useful in some ophthalmological applications. [nih]

Acrocyanosis: A condition marked by symmetrical cyanosis of the extremities, with persistent, uneven, mottled blue or red discoloration of the skin of the digits, wrists, and ankles and with profuse sweating and coldness of the digits. Called also Raynaud's sign. [eu]

Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization. [nih]

Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow. It inhibits platelet aggregation and has many other biological effects such as bronchodilation, mediation of inflammation, etc. [nih]

Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.

Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium. [nih]

Antibody: An immunoglobulin molecule that has a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which it interacts only with the antigen that induced its synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially plasma cells), or with antigen closely related to it. Antibodies are classified according to their ode of action as agglutinins, bacteriolysins, haemolysins, opsonins, precipitins, etc. [eu]

Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-

Arrhythmia: Any variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat, including sinus arrhythmia, premature beat, heart block, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, pulsus alternans, and paroxysmal tachycardia. [eu]

Arterial: Pertaining to an artery or to the arteries. [eu]

Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart. [nih]

Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries. [nih]

Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life. [nih]

Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with autoantibodies and cause an immune response. [nih]

Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by autoimmune diseases. [nih]

Autonomic: Self-controlling; functionally independent. [eu]

Biochemical: Relating to biochemistry; characterized by, produced by, or involving chemical reactions in living organisms. [eu]

Biopsy: The removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed to establish precise diagnosis. [eu]

Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors. [nih]

Blushing: involuntary reddening, especially of the face, associated with feelings of embarrassment, confusion or shame. [nih]

Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from kallidin in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from mast cells during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter. [nih]

Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergot alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. it suppresses prolactin secretion and is used to treat amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and female infertility, and has been proposed for Parkinson disease. [nih]

Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults. [nih]

Capillary: Any one of the minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules, forming a network in nearly all parts of the body. Their walls act as semipermeable membranes for the interchange of various substances, including fluids, between the blood and tissue fluid; called also vas capillare.

Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine. [nih]

Carbohydrate: An aldehyde or ketone derivative of a polyhydric alcohol, particularly of the pentahydric and hexahydric alcohols. They are so named because the hydrogen and oxygen are usually in the proportion to form water, (CH2O)n. The most important carbohydrates are the starches, sugars, celluloses, and gums. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, poly- and heterosaccharides. [eu]

Cardiac: Pertaining to the heart. [eu]

Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions. [nih]

Cardiovascular: Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels. [eu]

Carnitine: Constituent of striated muscle and liver. It is used therapeutically to stimulate gastric and pancreatic secretions and in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. [nih]

Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division. [nih]

Chemotherapy: The treatment of disease by means of chemicals that have a specific toxic effect upon the disease - producing microorganisms or that selectively destroy cancerous tissue. [eu]

Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is Vibrio cholerae. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated. [nih]

Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. [nih]

Chronic: Persisting over a long period of time. [eu]

Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. [nih]

Coenzyme: An organic nonprotein molecule, frequently a phosphorylated derivative of a water-soluble vitamin, that binds with the protein molecule (apoenzyme) to form the active enzyme (holoenzyme). [eu]

Collapse: 1. a state of extreme prostration and depression, with failure of circulation. 2. abnormal falling in of the walls of any part of organ. [eu]

Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment. [nih]

Criterion: A standard by which something may be judged. [eu]

Cutaneous: Pertaining to the skin; dermal; dermic. [eu]

Cyanosis: A bluish discoloration, applied especially to such discoloration of skin and mucous membranes due to excessive concentration of reduced haemoglobin in the blood. [eu]

Degenerative: Undergoing degeneration : tending to degenerate; having the character of or involving degeneration; causing or tending to cause degeneration. [eu]

Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment. [nih]

Diarrhea: Passage of excessively liquid or excessively frequent stools. [nih]

Dorsal: 1. pertaining to the back or to any dorsum. 2. denoting a position more toward the back surface than some other object of reference; same as posterior in human anatomy; superior in the anatomy of quadrupeds. [eu]

Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa. [nih]

Endothelium: The layer of epithelial cells that lines the cavities of the heart and of the blood and lymph vessels, and the serous cavities of the body, originating from the mesoderm. [eu]

Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies. [nih]

Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is biosynthesized enzymatically from prostaglandin endoperoxides in human vascular tissue. It is a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension. [nih]

Ergotamine: A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is an alpha-1 selective adrenergic agonist and is commonly used in the treatment of migraine headaches. [nih]

Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. [nih]

Extravasation: A discharge or escape, as of blood, from a vessel into the tissues. [eu]

Extravascular: Situated or occurring outside a vessel or the vessels. [eu]

Felodipine: A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels. [nih]

Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules. [nih]

Fibrosis: The formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration [eu]

Gangrene: Death of tissue, usually in considerable mass and generally associated with loss of vascular (nutritive) supply and followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction. [eu]

Gastrointestinal: Pertaining to or communicating with the stomach and intestine, as a gastrointestinal fistula. [eu]

Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues. [nih]

Heartburn: Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus. [nih]

Hormonal: Pertaining to or of the nature of a hormone. [eu]

Humoral: Of, relating to, proceeding from, or involving a bodily humour -now often used of endocrine factors as opposed to neural or somatic. [eu]

Hyperhidrosis: Excessive perspiration. Called also hyperidrosis, polyhidrosis, and polyidrosis. [eu]

Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of oxalate in the urine.

Hypertension: Persistently high arterial blood pressure. Various criteria for its threshold have been suggested, ranging from 140 mm. Hg systolic and 90 mm. Hg diastolic to as high as 200 mm. Hg systolic and 110 mm. Hg diastolic. Hypertension may have no known cause (essential or idiopathic h.) or be associated with other primary diseases (secondary h.). [eu]

Hypertrophy: Nutrition) the enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of its constituent cells. [eu]

Hypogonadism: A condition resulting from or characterized by abnormally decreased functional activity of the gonads, with retardation of growth and sexual development. [eu]

Idiopathic: Of the nature of an idiopathy; self-originated; of unknown causation. [eu]

Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience. [nih]

Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of epoprostenol, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation. [nih]

Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies. [nih]

Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection. [nih]

Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. [nih]

Infusion: The therapeutic introduction of a fluid other than blood, as saline solution, solution, into a vein. [eu]

Insulin: A protein hormone secreted by beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, generally promoting the cellular utilization of glucose. It is also an important regulator of protein and lipid metabolism. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. [nih]

Intermittent: Occurring at separated intervals; having periods of cessation of activity. [eu]

Intravascular: Within a vessel or vessels. [eu] Intravenous: Within a vein or veins. [eu]

Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.

Ischemia: Deficiency of blood in a part, due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel. [eu]

Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid. [nih]

Lesion: Any pathological or traumatic discontinuity of tissue or loss of function of a part. [eu]

Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth. [nih]

Lobe: A more or less well-defined portion of any organ, especially of the brain, lungs, and glands. Lobes are demarcated by fissures, sulci, connective tissue, and by their shape. [eu]

Lupus: A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the nasal, buccal, and conjunctival mucosa.

Methyldopa: An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent. Before its alpha-adrenergic actions became clear, methyldopa was thought to act by inhibiting decarboxylation of DOPA leading to depletion of norepinephrine or by conversion to and release as the false transmitter alpha-methylnorepinephrine. [nih]

Methysergide: An ergot derivative that is a congener of lysergic acid diethylamide. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.

Mobility: Capability of movement, of being moved, or of flowing freely. [eu]

Modulator: A specific inductor that brings out characteristics peculiar to a definite region. [eu]

Molecular: Of, pertaining to, or composed of molecules: a very small mass of matter. [eu]

Musculature: The muscular apparatus of the body, or of any part of it. [eu]

Narcotic: 1. pertaining to or producing narcosis. 2. an agent that produces insensibility or stupor, applied especially to the opioids, i.e. to any natural or synthetic drug that has morphine-like actions. [eu]

Neonatal: Pertaining to the first four weeks after birth. [eu]

Neural: 1. pertaining to a nerve or to the nerves. 2. situated in the region of the spinal axis, as the neutral arch. [eu]

Neuromuscular: Pertaining to muscles and nerves. [eu]

Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. [nih]

Niacin: Water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. Required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. Has pellagra-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties. [nih]

Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke. [nih]

Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure. The use of nifedipine as a tocolytic is being investigated. [nih]

Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic. [nih]

Orthopaedic: Pertaining to the correction of deformities of the musculoskeletal system; pertaining to orthopaedics. [eu]

Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures, osteitis, splenomegaly with infarct, anemia, and extramedullary hemopoiesis. [nih]

Overdose: 1. to administer an excessive dose. 2. an excessive dose. [eu]

Pallor: A clinical manifestation consisting of an unnatural paleness of the skin. [nih]

Panic: A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function. [nih]

Parenteral: Not through the alimentary canal but rather by injection through some other route, as subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraorbital, intracapsular, intraspinal, intrasternal, intravenous, etc. [eu]

Pentoxifylline: A methylxanthine derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production. [nih]

Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality. [nih]

Postural: Pertaining to posture or position. [eu]

Potassium: An element that is in the alkali group of metals. It has an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance. [nih]

Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of heart failure, hypertension, pheochromocytoma, Raynaud's syndrome, prostatic hypertrophy, and urinary retention. [nih]

Precipitation: The act or process of precipitating. [eu]

Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes. [nih]

Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra. it secretes a substance that liquifies coagulated semen. it is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the pubic symphysis, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the rectum. [nih]

Proteins: Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape and function of the protein.

Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis. [nih]

Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals. [nih]

Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship. [nih]

Pulmonary: Pertaining to the lungs. [eu]

Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. [nih]

Rauwolfia Alkaloids: Alkaloids from Rauwolfia serpentina Benth and other species. The prototype is reserpine, which is a depleter of catecholamines and serotonin from the sympathetic postganglionic fibers and brain areas. They have been used in hypertension and psychoses despite their wide range of potentially adverse effects. [nih]

Receptor: 1. a molecular structure within a cell or on the surface characterized by (1) selective binding of a specific substance and (2) a specific physiologic effect that accompanies the binding, e.g., cell-surface receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, antigens, complement fragments, and immunoglobulins and cytoplasmic receptors for steroid hormones. 2. a sensory nerve terminal that responds to stimuli of various kinds. [eu]

Recombinant: 1. a cell or an individual with a new combination of genes not found together in either parent; usually applied to linked genes. [eu]

Refractory: Not readily yielding to treatment. [eu]

Regurgitation: A backward flowing, as the casting up of undigested food, or the backward flowing of blood into the heart, or between the chambers of the heart when a valve is incompetent. [eu]

Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing reperfusion injury. [nih]

Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis. [nih]

Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FMN and FAD. [nih]

Sedimentation: The act of causing the deposit of sediment, especially by the use of a centrifugal machine. [eu]

Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of glutathione peroxidase. [nih]

Solvent: 1. dissolving; effecting a solution. 2. a liquid that dissolves or that is capable of dissolving; the component of a solution that is present in greater amount. [eu]

Spasmodic: Of the nature of a spasm. [eu]

Spectrum: A charted band of wavelengths of electromagnetic vibrations obtained by refraction and diffraction. By extension, a measurable range of activity, such as the range of bacteria affected by an antibiotic (antibacterial s.) or the complete range of manifestations of a disease. [eu]

Stimulant: 1. producing stimulation; especially producing stimulation by causing tension on muscle fibre through the nervous tissue. 2. an agent or remedy that produces stimulation. [eu]

Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the esophagus and the beginning of the duodenum. [nih]

Sumatriptan: A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of migraines. [nih]

Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes. [nih]

Synaptic: Pertaining to or affecting a synapse (= site of functional apposition between neurons, at which an impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another by electrical or chemical means); pertaining to synapsis (= pairing off in point-for-point association of homologous chromosomes from the male and female pronuclei during the early prophase of meiosis). [eu]

Syncope: A temporary suspension of consciousness due to generalized cerebral schemia, a faint or swoon. [eu]

Systemic: Pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole. [eu]

Testicular: Pertaining to a testis. [eu]

Thermal: Pertaining to or characterized by heat. [eu]

Thermoregulation: Heat regulation. [eu]

Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel with thrombotic material carried by the blood stream from the site of origin to plug another vessel. [eu]

Thyroxine: An amino acid of the thyroid gland which exerts a stimulating effect on thyroid metabolism. [nih]

Tick Paralysis: Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks. [nih]

Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. [eu]

Transplantation: The grafting of tissues taken from the patient's own body or from another. [eu]

Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of epinephrine, thyroid hormones, and melanin. [nih]

Ulcer: A local defect, or excavation, of the surface of an organ or tissue; which is produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. [eu]

Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically. [nih]

Vaccination: The introduction of vaccine into the body for the purpose of inducing immunity. Coined originally to apply to the injection of smallpox vaccine, the term has come to mean any immunizing procedure in which vaccine is injected. [eu]

Vascular: Pertaining to blood vessels or indicative of a copious blood supply. [eu]

Vasoactive: Exerting an effect upon the calibre of blood vessels. [eu]

Vasoconstriction: The diminution of the calibre of vessels, especially constriction of arterioles leading to decreased blood flow to a part. [eu]

Veins: The vessels carrying blood toward the heart. [nih]

Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins. [nih]

Veratrum: A genus of coarse plants of the lily family with poisonous roots that contain many alkaloids and are used as emetics, parasiticides, antihypertensives, and other drugs. The specific chemicals isolated from Veratrum viride or V. album are veratrum alkaloids. [nih]

Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. [nih]

Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. [nih]

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