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A Subacute grade II tear of the medial gastrocnemius at the tenomuscular junction. Note the hematoma in the tear between gastrocnemius and soleus.b Power Doppler analysis shows the reactive hyperemia in the bellies a Subacute grade II tear of the medial gastrocnemius at the tenomuscular junction. Note the hematoma in the tear between gastrocnemius and soleus.b Power Doppler analysis shows the reactive hyperemia in the bellies Result of a grade III tear of the abductor longus muscle.a The EFV US...

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Longitudinal US scan of wrist, dorsal side. Patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis.a Gray-scale scan and (b) power Doppler scan.The use of power Doppler allows the amount of synovial proliferation to be assessed more than MR without contrast (spin echo T1 (SET1), short T1 inversion recovery (STIR)) (c, d) or a plain film (e) Patient with rheumatoid arthritis.a The power Doppler scan shows a high degree of hyperperfusion,an expression of hyperactive pannus.b Follow-up during therapy.A...

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Patient with rheumatoid arthritis. a Shoulder, posterior scan. Expansion of posterior capsular recess with inhomogeneous hypoechoic synovial proliferation (*).b,c Images taken before (b),and after (c),injection of contrast agent (Ce-US).These scans show a significant hyperemia of synovial proliferation.The hyperechoic appearance is due to the contrasting microbub-bles. G posterior margin of humeral glenoid process H posterior aspect of humeral head Bursae are anatomical entities located near...

Synovial Osteochondrosis Doppler

Proximal interphalangeal joint. Volar transverse (a) and longitudinal (b) scans showing both tendon sheath and joint cavity widening. mp middle phalanx pp proximal phalanx t flexor tendons * synovial fluid Psoriatic arthritis. Peritendinitis of the Achilles tendon (t). Longitudinal (a) and transverse (b) scans showing thickened hypo-ane-choic peritenon (arrowheads) with hypoechogenicity of the peritendinous soft tissues (*) Psoriatic arthritis. Achilles...

Median Nerve Force Tendon

Hemophilia Bone Scan

Septic arthritis of the hip in a limping three-year-old child with mild hip pain. a Longitudinal US scan reveals a small effusion with inho-mogeneous echogenicity and synovial thickening.Metaphyseal bone erosion is present (large white arrow). b X-ray in the same patient confirms the soft-tissue swelling around the involved joint, suggestive of effusion (empty white arrows), and bone erosion (small white arrow) Transient synovitis in a five-year-old child with similar clinical presentation to...

Dermis and hypodermis

The skin represents the external covering of the whole body. Its thickness varies according to different body regions, reaching a maximum thickness at the palm of the hand and the sole of the foot. The skin is divided into two different layers the external layer is the epidermis, consisting of squa-mous multistratified epithelium that continues deeply with the dermis, a layer of connective tissue made of cells and collagen fibers lying in an amorphous interstitial substance. The dermis contains...

Synovial Osteochondromatosis Ultround

Hyperechoic Tophi Within Synovium

A Longitudinal scan of the lateral aspect of the left hip. Inflammatory distension of trochanteric bursa with hypoechoic fluid inside. b MR scan of the same patient coronal, fat suppression technique a Anterior compartment of knee, longitudinal scan. Posttraumatic distension of pre-patellar bursa arrows with a small amount of fluid and thin echoic septa. P patella T patellar tendon. b MR scan of the same patient axial,turbo spin echo TSE T2 Patient with gout,olecranon bursitis. The bursa is...

Heel Bursitis Scans

Thickening The Achilles Tendon

A Transverse scan,dorsum of wrist compound imaging . Distension with anechoic fluid of the sheath of the 4th extensor's compartment. b MPR reconstruction on a coronal plane. T extensors ed with fluid the presence of a joint fluid collection must be considered. In proliferative tenosynovitis hypertrophic proliferation of the synovial tissue is observed, showing various degrees of echogenicity Fig. 4.29 . Dynamic ultrasound examination and compression of the transducer performed by the operator...

Pyrophosphate arthropathy

In patients with pyrophosphate arthropathy, crystals are detectable within the substance of the hyaline cartilage Fig. 4.7 11-13 . The sparkling reflectivity of pyrophosphate crystals allows for clear depiction of even minimal aggregates within cartilage. Crystal deposition can be focal or diffuse -leading to the development of a 'double contour', which is created by the permeability of the crystal layer, allowing US to penetrate and depict the bone profile beneath. This is typically seen in...

Proliferative Tenosynovitis In Digit Of Dogs

Erosive osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.The arrowhead indicates a bone erosion at the head of the middle phalanx depicted both on longitudinal a and transverse b dorsal sonograms. dp distal phalanx mp middle phalanx US in patients with rheumatoid arthritis demonstrates a wide range of anomalies 21-31 . It provides detailed information on the quantity and characteristics of the fluid collection, the presence of synovial proliferation and the integrity of articular cartilage...