Postmenopausal Women Ebooks Catalog

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program

Joan Atman with the help and inspiration from Dr Stephanie put down this book. Dr Stephanie is the mastermind behind this helpful guide. He is a nutritionist and a medical practitioner who has been very active in this case. Joan Atman is an international Life coach and Energy medicine specialist. The Natural Female Hormone Balance program is a 28 day Hormone reset Detox program for female. It is a very easy and gentle program that is designed by the author to support the female body detox and eventually regain the normal hormonal balance. All the tips and the dietary changes discussed in the program will kick start the body's natural ability to balance hormones. This eventually helps your body look and feel incredible. The full program contains 6 modules designed to lead you step by step through the Hormone reset Detox program. This program is available in PDF formats. The author has also included some video and audio tutorials. You can download the program and print or just download the PDF file, the Videos and the Audio. Continue reading...

Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Summary

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Author: Joan Atman

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My Natural Female Hormone Balance Program Review

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It is pricier than all the other ebooks out there, but it is produced by a true expert and includes a bundle of useful tools.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Series Editor Introduction

Preventive Nutrition Fourth edition is very special for me and my coeditor, Dr. Richard Deckelbaum. Each of the volumes' Table of Contents is included in the Appendix as there have been many contributors to the prior volumes, and we have added new topics as these emerge with findings that are relevant to health providers and their patients, clients, and or family members. The overarching goal of the volumes is to provide readers with the most up-to-date and comprehensive review of the state of the science in each chapter and then to integrate the information so that the synergies between chapters are visible. The overriding driver for the timing of the fourth edition was the publishing of the results from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), the largest placebo-controlled intervention study in postmenopausal women ever undertaken. Two chapters in this volume review the findings. The dietary modification component of WHI examined outcomes for coronary heart disease and breast and...

Obesityinduced diseases weight loss and lowfat dairy products

Though calcium is recognized as important for bone health, most people do not realize the added benefit of taking calcium with other supporting minerals that dairy products provide such as Mg, Cu, and Zn. For example, it has been shown (Saltman and Strause, 1993) that in postmenopausal women (average age 64.6), over a two-year period of time, a placebo group lost 2.23 bone mineral density compared to 1.66 loss for the group that supplemented with trace minerals (Cu, Mn, Zn) or a 0.5 loss for those taking a calcium supplement (1000 mg day). When trace minerals and calcium were both consumed, there was an observed increase of 1.28 in bone mineral density. Additional studies support the idea of needing to supplement with both calcium and non-calcium minerals to minimize bone loss and maximize bone strength (Strause et al., 1994, Saito et al., 2004, Hermann et al., 1997).

TABLE 211 Selected Musculoskeletal Disorders

Osteoporosis is a loss of bone density occurring when the loss of bone substance exceeds the rate of bone formation. Bones become porous, brittle, and fragile. Compression fractures of the vertebrae are common. This disorder occurs most often in postmenopausal women, but can occur in men as well.

Morbidity Associated With Klinefelters Syndrome

There may be an increased risk for autoimmune disease in individuals with KS. Systemic lupus erythematosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and even rare vascular disorders, such as Takaysu's arteritis, have been reported in patients with KS, although the true relative increase in risk is difficult to calculate because of the small number of affected individuals (38-40). It has been speculated that this possible increased risk of autoimmune disease results from an increase in the estrogen to testosterone ratio, because it is believed that elevated circulating estrogen levels may place premenopausal women at increased risk of autoimmune disease (41). Alternative explanations for this increased risk of autoimmune disease in individuals with KS include abnormalities in the T-lymphocyte subsets, including a reduced number of T-suppressor cells (CD8+), because this is occasionally found in women with autoimmune disease. It is interesting to note that androgen therapy may both...

Who gets osteoporosis

Both men and women can develop osteoporosis. Although more people with osteoporosis are women, particularly those who are postmenopausal, about two million men in the United States currently have osteoporosis, and one out of four will experience a fracture related to osteoporosis in his lifetime. Primary osteoporosis, which occurs in both men and women, is a result of aging. It occurs most frequently in postmenopausal women due to the rapid loss in bone associated with the normal drop in estrogen around menopause. The average age of menopause in the United States is 51. The World Health Organization reports that 35 of postmenopausal white women have osteoporosis. Primary osteoporosis or age-related osteoporosis tends to develop toward the end of life in men. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons reports that almost 14 of men over the age of 85 have osteoporosis, while only 2 of men between the ages of 65 and 74 have osteoporosis. Menopausal women and men in later life are not...

Doctors Dilemma

Osteoporosis is due to a loss of bone mass, and this commonly causes hip or other fractures in old people. It becomes particularly common in post-menopausal women, but also occurs in elderly men. The addition of calcium to the diet and greater exercise delay the symptoms, but it is nevertheless one of the commonest age-associated diseases. Osteoarthritis is caused by deterioration of the normal structure and function of joints, is frequently associated with painful inflammation. Part of the problem is simply due to the wear and tear of mechanical structures which cannot repair themselves, but autoimmune responses can also be important. This is a general problem in old age as the immune system loses efficiency and the ability to distinguish self from non-self proteins, components of proteins, or other molecules. The decline in the capacity of the immune system to combat invading pathogens can also have severe consequences for old people. It is well known that they become more...

Didronel etidronate is usually prescribed for Pagets disease Is it ever prescribed for osteoporosis

Didronel (etidronate) is another bisphosphonate. It is FDA-approved for Paget's disease, high calcium levels related to cancer, and rare bone conditions related to hip replacement surgery, but not for osteoporosis. Outside of the United States, Didronel is used for osteoporosis. It works a little differently from other bisphosphonates in that it kills off the osteoclasts (the cells that break down bone). Nonetheless, Didronel has been very effective in reducing osteoporosis-related fractures, particularly spinal ones, and safety has been established for 7 years or more use in postmenopausal women. Additionally, like other bisphos-phonates, some protective effects of Didronel on bone density have been shown to persist even after stopping the medication. Didronel is not FDA-approved

Supplemental Reading

Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report of a WHO Study Group. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 1994 843 1-129. Body JJ, Gaich GA, Scheele WH, et al. A randomized double-blind trial to compare the efficacy of teriparatide recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34) with alendronate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 87 4528-35. Clements D, Compston JE, Evans WD, Rhodes J. Hormone replacement therapy prevents bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1993 34 1543-6. Lanza FL, Hunt RH, Thomson AB, et al. Endoscopic comparison of esophageal and gastroduodenal effects of risedronate and alendronate in postmenopausal women. Gastroenterology 2000 119 631-8. Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, et al. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2001 344 1434-41. Reid...

Macrovascular Disease

Macrovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with or without diabetes, and in both groups elderly people have more disease than their younger counterparts. However, people with diabetes develop more macrovascular disease from an earlier age and even premenopausal women are often affected. This needs to be taken into consideration in determining what is the 'older' population. People with diabetes also have a worse prognosis following a macrovascular event than those without diabetes, even after adjusting for the severity of disease, such as the size of a myocardial infarct (Fisher 1999).

Physiological Significance of Human Collagenase3

In addition to this putative role of collagenase-3 in human fetal bone development, a number of studies have examined the participation of this enzyme in other tissue remodeling processes. Nevertheless, care must be taken in extrapolating results obtained in rodents to the situation present in humans, especially in light of data suggesting that murine colla-genase-3 may also have to function as a murine collagenase-1, whose existence has yet to be demonstrated. One of the studies looking for potential collagenase-3 functions in murine tissues concluded that it may be involved in the ovarian function during the reproductive cycle.62 In fact, in Northern blot analysis of rat tissues, Balbin et al62 have demonstrated that collagenase-3 is expressed at high levels in the ovary and thus has a potential role in ovulation. The dynamics of collagenase-3 expression in rat ovary, with increasing levels at proestrus and estrus as the time of ovulation approaches and declining thereafter, is...

Paraneoplastic Arthropathies Of Solid Tumours

Palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis (PFA) are considered as an atypical form of the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSDS). It differs from typical cases of RSDS in that the fasciitis is more severe, arthritis is more inflammatory and both are more rapidly progressive 10 . The association between PFA and the underlying malignant neoplasm was first described in an ovarian carcinoma. Six postmenopausal women

Location of the Points of the Great Bridge and Great Regulator Channels

Dayan Qigong Meridian Points

Uses Can relieve difficulty in breathing, chest pain, diarrhea, cholera, menopausal disorders, childbirth pains, abdominal tension. Pressing LV-14 affects the liver, gall bladder, and diaphragm. Used traditionally to relieve side aches from too much running, and to relieve hiccups, belching, and snoring.

Crohn Arthritis Research

Bernstein CN, Leslie WD, Tabacck SP (2003) Bone density in a population-based cohort of pre-menopausal adult women with early onset inflammatory disease Am J Gastroenterology 98 1094-1100 98. Bernstein CN, Bector S, Leslie WD (2003) Lack of relationship of calcium and vitamin D intake to bone mineral density in premenopausal women with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 98 2468-2473

Current Treatments

In particular, the bisphosphonates have been widely used in the treatment of postmenopausal and age-related osteoporosis. Bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was effective in modestly increasing BMD (approximately 8 over 3 years of treatment) and significantly decreasing vertebral and femoral neck fracture risk by approximately 50 . The effect on fracture appears disproportionate to the increase in bone density and it is thought that, by inhibiting bone resorption, other bone changes contribute to increased bone strength. These include removal of resorption lacunae that may act as stress risers for crack initiation on bone surfaces, increased mineral content of bone matrix, reduced cortical porosity, and improvements in trabecular architecture. Estrogen deficiency, due to menopause, amenorrhea, chemotherapy, or excessive exercise, is associated with precipitate trabecular bone loss. This is due at least in part to increased osteoclastic activity, which...

Treatment strategies based on correcting neurotransmitter defects

Like the potential usefulness of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the potential therapeutic value of the oestrogens came from their protective effect against AD in post-menopausal women. Experimental studies have shown that oestrogens protect hippocampal dendrites from damage and also augment the activity of choline acetyl transferase. Additional properties of oestrogens which may contribute to their neuroprotective effects include antioxidant properties and a facilitation of the processing of APP along a non-amyloidogenic pathway. Despite the promising experimental and epidemiological studies, the clinical trials of the oestrogens in AD have been disappointing. There is some evidence that women who had taken oestrogens for the treatment of post-menopausal symptoms had a better response in terms of an improvement in cognitive symptoms than those who had not taken oestrogens. It seems possible that selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which are drugs that act as...

TABLE 2 Causes of Dry Mouth

Component, while others also use subjective criteria. As a result of these differing criteria, the prevalence estimates of SS have ranged from 2 to 10 million persons in the United States, and it has remained undiagnosed in many. The disease affects primarily peri- or postmenopausal women, at a ratio of nine females to one male however, it is being diagnosed with increased frequency in younger individuals. SS has also been described in a cohort of young persons under the age of 16 who presented with salivary gland swelling, positive antinuclear antibody, and an indolent course over a seven-year follow-up period (3).

Long Term Effects Tumorigenicity

In untreated women, the main risk factors for endometrial carcinoma are age, obesity, nulliparity, late menopause (and possibly early menarche), the Stein-Leventhal syndrome, exposure to exogenous estrogens, radiation, and certain systemic diseases, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and arthritis (SED-14, 1451) (81). Certain of these risk factors indicate that an altered endocrine state with increased estrogen stimulation is a predisposing cause, and one might thus in theory expect estrogen treatment (and notably hormonal replacement therapy) to increase the risk (SEDA-22, 466). Two epidemiological studies published in 1975 first suggested that the use of estrogens during and after the menopause increased the risk of endometrial cancer, and in 1986 the authors of an authoritative review (83) endorsed these findings, concluding that there was an increase in risk among users, relative to non-users, of 4-9 times the risk increased with both the strength of the...

Broiled Baked and Poached

Omega-3 has many health benefits including lowering triglycerides and helping to prevent heart disease and blood clots, improving brain function, as well as helping with high blood pressure, diabetes, strokes, depression, arthritis, allergies, circulation problems, ADHD, Alzheimer's disease, skin disorders, gout, and lowering the risk of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. The primary source for this fatty acid is fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, sardines, and herring. Opt to buy fish that comes from the deep sea (as opposed to farm-raised) so it will be as pollutant-free as possible.

Obesity Recognition and Treatment in Women

The increased health risks of obesity include hypertension, elevated serum cholesterol and death related to cardiovascular diseases as well as diabetes, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, carpal tunnel, sleep apnea, respiratory problems and endome-trial, breast and colon cancers. Specific to the obstetrician gynecologist, obesity is associated with both increased gynecological and obstetrical morbidity. Major gynecological problems include abnormal uterine bleeding, ovulatory dysfunction and endometrial cancer. Adult weight gain is associated with increased risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. An overweight individual undergoing surgery has an increased risk of excess blood loss, increased operating time and longer exposure to anesthesia and infection. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of gesta-tional hypertension, preeclampsia gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia and cesarean delivery. Obesity is an independent risk factor for spontaneous abortion and pregnancy...

Factors Associated with Risk for Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is common in the western world, with an estimated 6 lifetime risk for people living in the United States. However, this summary figure obscures significant differences in risk associated with exposure to endogenous and exogenous risk factors (Potter, 1999). A sedentary lifestyle (Le Marchand et al, 1999), a western diet (Slattery et al, 2000), and diets low in certain nutrients (Fuchs et al, 2002) are much more highly associated with colorectal cancer in patients with a positive family history than in patients with a negative family history. Moreover, the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be more protective in women with a negative family history (Kampman et al, 1997). Hormone Replacement Therapy In women, HRT has been shown to protect against colorectal cancer. Numerous observational studies have shown an association between recent and prolonged use of HRT in postmenopausal women and decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Recently, a controlled trial...

Suggested Readings

Grodstein F, Newcomb PA, Stampfer MJ. Post menopausal hormone therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer a review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 1999 106 574-582. Kampman E, Potter JD, Slattery ML, et al. Hormone replacement therapy, reproductive history, and colon cancer a multicenter, case-control study in the United States. Cancer Causes Control 1997 8 146-158. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002 288 321-333.

PRL Clinical Implications

Among pituitary tumors, 60 secrete PRL and cause a state of chronic hyperprolactinemia. In certain asymptomatic subjects with hyperprolactinemia, stable circulating complexes of immunoglobulin and PRL have been identified (Bonhoff, Vuille, Gomez, and Gallersen 1995 Hattori and Inagaki 1998), suggesting that antiprolactin autoantibodies may occasionally neutralize the activity of the hormone. Pituitary adenomas reveal pathophysiologic effects of PRL in men by inducing decreased libido, impotence, gynecomastia, galactorrhea, hypospermia, and occasionally reduced beard growth (Thorner et al. 1998). In premenopausal women, the cardinal effects of hyperprolactinemia are amenorrhea, a cessation of the normal cyclic ovarian function, galactorrhea, decreased libido, and an increased long-term risk of osteoporosis (Thorner et al. 1998 Palermo, Albano, Mangione, and Napoli 1994).

Raloxifene hydrochloride

Uses Prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Not effective in reducing hot flashes or flushes associated with estrogen deficiency. pausal women, during lactation, or in pediatric clients. Concurrent use with systemic estrogen or hormone replacement therapy. Special Concerns Use with caution with highly protein-bound drugs, including clofibrate, diaze-pam, diazoxide, ibuprofen, indo-methacin, and naproxen. Effect on bone mass density beyond 2 years of treatment is not known. Side Effects CV Hot flashes, migraine. Body as a whole Infection, flu syndrome, chest pain, fever, weight gain, peripheral edema. CNS Depression, insomnia. GI Nausea, dyspepsia, vomiting, flatulence, GI disorder, gastroenteritis. GU Vaginitis, urinary tract infection, cystitis, leukorrhea, endometrial disorder. Respiratory Sinusitis, pharyngitis, increased cough, pneumonia, laryngitis. Musculoskeletal Arthral-gia, myalgia, leg cramps, arthritis. Dermatologic Rash, sweating. Drug Interactions Ampicillin...

Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors

The presence of estrogen and or progesterone receptors on tumors is considered favorable because these patients are eligible for hormonal treatment. Tamoxifen, is a selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM), which acts as an estrogen antagonist in normal breast tissue and breast cancer cells but as an antagonist in liver and bone cells. Apart from lowering serum cholesterol and preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis (26), tamoxifen is the most effective and extensively used hormonal treatment for all stages of breast cancer. More recently, the drug was approved for prevention of breast cancer in high-risk individuals. In a recent meta-analysis, which included information on 37,000 women in 55 clinical trials of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for five years (27), reduction in recurrence and mortality rates were 47 and 26 , respectively, over a 10-year period. Fifty percent decrease was also observed in the incidence of contralateral breast cancer in patients receiving tamoxifen,...

Gut Microflora Influences

Another lens through which to view the pathophysiology of RA is to explore the significance of changes in glucocorticoid and sex hormones both before and during the course of RA. This area is exceedingly complex as researchers try to decipher which changes may actually be causes of RA and which changes may be secondary to the already established inflammatory process of RA. A review by Masi et al.,14 published in 1995, analyzed collective results of controlled trials measuring sex hormones in patients with RA who had not been previously treated with glucocorticoids. The findings did indicate that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate was significantly decreased in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with RA, although the magnitude of difference was more pronounced in the premenopausal subjects (a 39 decrease in premenopausal versus a 19 decrease in postmenopausal subjects). Among the men, the clearest finding was that serum testosterone levels were consistently decreased in the men...

Aging and Spontaneous Development of Diseases

Cardiovascular disease poses a major threat to aging individuals. The rhesus monkey has been used extensively in the development of diagnostic methods for cardiovascular disease (Neemen et al., 2004). In women, there is increased incidence of heart disease after the age of 50, presumably associated with the loss of estradiol in postmenopause (Campos et al., 1988). The other suspected problem contributing to the onset of this condition is altered lipoprotein profiles, with increased (10-15 ) low density lipoproteins (LDL) in menopausal women. Research in monkeys has shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) decreased the severity of atherosclerosis in controlled experiments in monkeys (Mikkola and Clarkson, 2002). Once the data are gathered in the monkey, then it will be important to establish if HRT administered during the perimenopausal transition decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease in women (Speroff and Fritz, 2005). Postmenopausal women are also at risk for developing...

Pharmacology of Aromatase Inhibitors

Primary objectives of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial, were to discover whether anastrozole is at least as effective as tamoxifen in post-menopausal women with localised breast cancer, and or offers benefits in safety or tolerability over tamoxifen in this group of patients. In total, 9366 patients were recruited and randomised to either 5 years of the AI anastrozole alone, tamoxifen alone or a combination of both. Three efficacy analyses have been completed with median follow-ups of 33 months, 47 months and 68 months. The completed treatment analysis at a median follow-up of 68 months showed that disease-free survival (DFS) and time to recurrence remained consistently in favour of anastrozole compared with tamoxifen. The benefit of anastrozole over tamoxifen was most striking in women with steroid hormone receptor-positive tumours and the absolute difference in benefit continued to increase over time for anastrozole versus tamoxifen. Overall survival...

Simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimation

The Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) index was based on an analysis of the relationship between more than 350 variables and osteoporosis (1). The development cohort for SCORE consisted of community-dwelling women, 45 years of age and older, who were recruited from October 1994 to February 1995. There were 1279 postmenopausal women in this cohort. Eighty-nine percent of these women were Caucasian and their average age was 61.5 years. Each woman in this original development cohort completed a self-administered questionnaire to determine the presence or absence of factors possibly or probably associated with osteoporosis. Proximal femur and PA spine bone density studies were performed with DXA.

Prozac See fluoxetine

Raloxifene (Trade name Evista) A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that acts on estrogen receptors in bone without stimulating those in the breast or uterus. Raloxifene is used to treat and prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, and clinical trials are underway examining its role in the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk individuals.

Sources Of Disease Misclassification

A commonly encountered decision in selecting a disease endpoint is the optimal level of aggregation or disaggregation, sometimes referred to as lumping versus splitting. The decision should be based on the entity that is most plausibly linked to exposure, reflecting an understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease generally and the specific etiologic process that is hypothesized to link exposure to the disease. There are unlimited opportunities for disaggregation, with subdivisions of disease commonly based on severity (e.g., obesity), age at occurrence (e.g., premenopausal versus postmenopausal breast cancer), exact anatomic location (e.g., brain tumors), microscopic characteristics (e.g., histo-logic type of gastric cancer), clinical course (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), molecular traits (e.g., cytogenetic types of leukemia), or prognosis (e.g., aggressiveness of prostate cancer). For any given disease, experts are continually deriving new ways in which the disease might be...

Animal Models of Bone Diseases

Postmenopausal osteoporosis has been studied in several animal models, including rats, sheep, ferrets, baboons, and monkeys. 6.21.4.1.1 Rat acute oophorectomy model of menopausal bone loss Oophorectomy in rats results in development of a high turnover osteopenia, with most bone loss occurring over 4-6 weeks.48 Treatment with estradiol is effective in inhibiting the bone loss. Thus, the rat has been found to provide a very useful model of the acute bone loss occurring in women following natural or surgical menopause due to estrogen withdrawal. Acute bone loss occurs in both young growing rats and mature rats following oophorectomy however, it is

Somastatin And Rheumatoid Artritis

Bontenbal M, Foekens JA, Lamberts SWJ et al. Feasibility, endocrine and anti-tumour effects of a triple endocrine therapy with tamoxifen, a somatostatin analogue and an antiprolactin in post menopausal breast cancer Randomized study with long-term follow-up. Br J Cancer 1998 77 115-122.

Muscarinic Receptor Stimulation

Some studies indicate that phytoestrogens may alter anxiety, learning and memory in vivo 99 . Phytoestrogens, particularly the soya isoflavones, are reported to improve cognitive function, not only in some animal studies but also in some clinical studies, and have been suggested to offer protection against AD development 100-102 . One study in student volunteers suggested that a high soya diet (100 mg total isoflavones d for 10 weeks) may improve short- and long-term memory in both females and males 100 . Another study showed that consumption of soya isoflavones by postmenopausal women for a period of 12 weeks improved cognitive function 103 . In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, some cognitive benefits, particularly verbal memory, occurred in postmenopausal women taking isoflavone supplements for 6 months 104 . Many other plants have been considered to display estrogenic effects in some studies, but their physiological significance and any potential clinical...

Alzheimers Disease and Alzheimers Dementia

There is no known way to entirely protect against AD, but some beneficial trends have been noted among people who take vitamin E supplements (and possibly other anti-oxidants), take anti-inflammatory drugs, and have a highly educated background, although many college graduates and accomplished professionals who take anti-inflammatory drugs for arthritis and vitamin E to stay young still develop AD. Some studies have suggested that among postmenopausal women, there is a slight protective effect with estrogen replacement. On the other hand, more women than men have AD and gender has itself been suggested as a risk factor.

Clinical Approach

Osteoporosis is an important health issue because the resultant bone fractures cause a great deal of morbidity in chronic pain, loss of independence, and loss of function, as well as mortality. Risk factors for the development of osteoporosis include a low peak skeletal density reached in young adulthood, increasing age, loss of steroid hormone production (menopause or hypogonadism), smoking, nutritional deficiencies, and genetically low bone density. Approximately 14 of white women and 3-5 of white men will develop osteoporosis in their lifetime. The prevalence is lower in other ethnic groups. Osteoporosis can be either idiopathic or a manifestation of another underlying disease process. Probably the most common form of secondary osteoporosis is caused by glucocorticoid excess, usually iatrogenic steroid use for an inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. Patients, both men and women, with rheumatoid arthritis are susceptible to accelerated bone loss with even low doses of...

Wob Pulmonary Physical Examination

Uterine sarcoma is rare, and presentation in an older woman is of postmenopausal bleeding with uterine enlargement without tenderness. 3-43. The answer is b. (Speroff, 6 e, pp 658-662.) Peripheral conversion of androstenedione to estrone in the fat tissue is the major source of estrogens in the menopausal woman. The conversion rate and the resulting estrogen levels are dependent on the percentage of body fat and increase as women age. In obese women, higher estrone levels will be found and the menopausal symptoms will be less frequent. These women are also less likely to develop osteoporosis. Especially in obese postmenopausal women, this prolonged and unopposed estrogen stimulation may cause uterine bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, and adenocarcinoma. 3-48. The answer is a. (DeCherney, 8 e, pp 668-669.) The most common cause of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding is atrophic vaginitis (with or without trauma). Endometriosis is the most common cause of infertility patients present...

Whats the likelihood that I will die from osteoporosis

In one recent study of postmenopausal women, those taking Fosamax (alendronate) for osteoporosis had less knee pain and fewer abnormalities of their knee joints related to osteoarthritis. Further study is needed to determine if bisphosphonates like Fosamax have positive and preventive effects on osteoarthritis and joint pain.

Pregnancy most likely diagnosis

Help each woman establish a regular schedule of self-care. The best time to conduct breast self-examination is right after the menstrual period, or the fourth through the seventh day of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen stimulation is low and the breasts are least congested. Advise the pregnant woman or menopausal woman who is not having menstrual periods to select a

Iron a Double Edged Sword

Because of the problem of anemia, especially in premenopausal women, the government, in all its wisdom, decided to force by law, beginning in the late 1970s, the fortification of certain foods with iron. These include all grains and pasta products. Unfortunately, they seemed to have ignored the expanding medical literature demonstrating the harmful effects of too much iron, especially in the elderly and those with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Even Sweden, which was one of the first countries to require iron fortification of certain foods, repealed their rule in 1995 when studies indicated that iron was responsible for a significant increase in liver cancer in women. As we age, we accumulate more iron. The importance of this observation is demonstrated by the fact that men are four times more likely to suffer a coronary heart attack than premenopausal women at age forty-five years. At this age, men have iron stores four times higher than women. Further, men with higher iron...

Osteoarthritis Prevalence and Risk Factors

It is well known that OA differs in men and women. Men younger than 50 tend to be most affected by OA, whereas, in people over 50, two thirds of the OA patients tend to be women 69 . The reason for this is unclear. Osteoarthritis in younger men is considered to be an occupational disease. In contrast, the high incidence in postmenopausal women suggests that the change in hormonal status may play a role in the OA process. However studies dealing with the protective effect of estrogens show conflicting results (reviewed in 67,95,203 ). A study in cynomolgus monkeys has shown that long-term estrogen replacement therapy significantly reduces the severity of OA lesions 94 . These data conflict with a common notion that, as noted for many years, there is an inverse relationship between OA and osteoporosis 191 . However, considering the prevalence and characteristics of the two diseases, it would not be surprising if they coexisted on occasion 6 . Moreover, some patients present with...

Oral Salmon Calcitonin The Lead in Product Development

In the first randomized clinical study, the results showed the anti-resorptive safety and efficacy of oral Eligen formulation in 277 postmenopausal women who participated in a three-month study (39). The results showed effective, well-tolerated, oral absorption, marked inhibition of bone resorption with minimal alteration of formation, and the reproducibility of responses over a three-month period. In addition, the level of serum concentrations achieved could evoke pronounced biological responses in bone tissue, as indicated by marked decreases in biomarkers of bone resorption. Interestingly, with this oral formulation, an inhibition in bone resorption without the secondary effect on bone formation was also reported. If dosed optimally, this approach might alter bone turnover favorably through the primary inhibition of bone resorption. Bagger et al. assessed the efficacy of a three-month study that investigated the effect of oral sCT on cartilage degradation on the basis of the...

Joint Laxity And Osteoarthritis

Menopause may accelerate the loss of muscle mass and result in decreased muscle performance and functional capacity (Sipila, 2003). Although differences in ligament properties between men and women are unknown, ACL stiffness does correlate with estrogen and progesterone levels (Romani et al., 2003), and estrogen levels are lower in postmenopausal women. Probably resulting from these differences in ligament and muscle properties, even healthy women have greater varus-valgus laxity than healthy men (Sharma et al., 1999), potentially contributing to the higher incidence of osteoarthritis in women after menopause. Thus the increased incidence of osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women is likely related to increased passive and dynamic laxity of the joint.

Dr Tod Mikuriyas International Classification of Diseases ICD Table Ailments Grouped by Body Systems Affected Benefited

In order for patients, nurses or doctors to understand why any particular drug or treatment works, they need to know about the disease. Cannabis is no exception. The more common medical indications for Cannabis are pain (of many types), nausea, anorexia, elevated intraocular pressure, spasms, cramps and seizures, insomnia, anxiety, cancer and AIDS or HIV symptoms. There are over 100 other symptomatic diseases in which Cannabis has provided clear symptomatic relief. These include opiate or benzodiazepine withdrawal, lupus, scoliosis, amytropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brain trauma, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), tobacco dependence, hypertension and menopausal symptoms. The list is long.

Terlipressin triglycyllysine vasopressin

Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, Prince R, Gaich GA, Reginster J-Y, Hodsman AB, Eriksen EF, Ish-Shalom S, Genant HK, Wang O, Mitlak BH. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. New Engl J Med 2001 344 1434-41.

Lesser Evening Primrose

(Oenothera biennis) The tap roots have been used as a vegetable, boiled, which makes them quite nutritious, but they were little used after the introduction of the potato (C P Johnson). The taste is not unlike parsnips (Loewenfeld), or even salsify, so it is claimed (Kearney). There are a few medicinal uses. The American Indians, or at any rate the Ojibwe, used to soak the whole plant in warm water to make a poultice that would heal bruises (H H Smith. 1945). But there are recognized herbal remedies involving the bark and leaves, which are known to be sedative and astringent, so they have been used for gastro-intestinal disorders in particular, and also for asthma and whooping cough (Grieve. 1931). More recently, the seeds have been successfully used to treat eczema (T Walker). Oil of Evening Primrose helps menopausal changes and pre-menstrual problems, and it has been recommended to help arthritis, and even to slow down changes in multiple sclerosis (M Evans).

Prevention

Calcium needs change during one's lifetime. The body's demand for calcium is greater during childhood and adolescence, when the skeleton is growing rapidly, and during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Postmenopausal women and older men also need to consume more calcium. This need may be caused by inadequate intake of vitamin D, which is necessary for intestinal absorption of calcium. Also, as you age, your body becomes less efficient at absorbing calcium and other nutrients. Older adults also are more likely to have chronic medical problems and to use medications that may impair calcium absorption. Smoking. Smoking is bad for your bones as well as for your heart and lungs. The mechanism that results in greater bone loss among smokers is unclear. Although smokers are thinner and may tend to exercise less, females who smoke also have lower levels of estrogen and experience an earlier menopause. All of these factors are associated with lower bone density.

Sun Jupiter

A deficiency of magnesium usually goes handin-hand with a Jack of vitamin B-6, producing the potential for several problems. If not enough magnesium is available and there is a hard aspect to Saturn, there may not be enough vitamin B-6 to control the blood cholesterol levels. If vitamin B-6 and magnesium are needed, there may also be tics and tremors, as well as diabetes. Cramps and menopausal arthritis are also possible. In addition, heart conditions and glaucoma can be set off by lack of vitamin B-6 in the system.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

BMD of the distal and midradius was measured by DXA (Norland XR-26) in 34 women with rheumatoid arthritis and compared to 40 controls (92). The women with rheumatoid arthritis ranged in age from 40 to 79 years with a mean age of 61 years. The average duration of disease was 12 years. BMD in both the distal and midradius was reduced in the women with rheumatoid arthritis who were in their 50s and 60s compared to controls. Women with rheumatoid arthritis in their 40s and 70s did not have BMDs that were significantly lower than controls. The authors suggested that postmenopausal bone loss may amplify the bone loss seen in rheumatoid arthritis. Forty-six postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis with a disease duration of 2 to 35 years underwent bone density testing at a variety of skeletal sites (93). The ultradistal radius was evaluated with pQCT (Stratec XCT-960, Birkenfeld, Germany), the os calcis with ultrasound (McCue CUBA, McCue Ultrasonics Ltd., Winchester Hampshire, UK), and...

Ivcells

Primary osteoporosis (senile or postmenopausal) is a critical loss of bone mass associated with a deficiency of either growth hormone (senile) or estrogen (postmenopausal). Decreased estrogen levels result in increased secretion of IL-1 (a potent stimulator of osteoclasts) from monocytes. Osteoporosis is widely recognized as a serious consequence of chronic glucocorticoid use to manage diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases (e.g., Crohn's disease), asthma, emphysema, and rejection of organ transplant. Although all glucocorticoid users are at risk of bone loss, postmenopausal women are at a particularly high risk for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and its fractures.

Gastrointestinal

Diarrhea is common soon after starting octreotide but usually resolves within 2 weeks without specific treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 203 mostly postmenopausal women with locally recurrent or metastatic breast carcinoma, all of whom were also taking tamoxifen, and who had estrogen-receptor positive and or progesterone-receptor positive tumors, octreotide was added to the basic treatment in 99 cases (21). The adverse events experienced by 10 or more of the patients and attributed to octreotide were gastrointestinal diarrhea (53 ), nausea (16 ), and abdominal pain (11 ) diarrhea occurred in only 11 of the controls.

Videos

Mood and symptom reporting among middle-aged women the relationship between menopausal status, hormonal replacement therapy, and exercise participation. Health Psychol. 1997 16 203-8. 22 Hagberg, J.M., Zmuda, J.M., McCole, S.D., et al. Moderate physical activity is associated with higher bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2001 49 1411-17. 32 Green, J. S., Stanforth, P. R., Gagnon, J., et al. Menopause, estrogen, and training effects on exercise hemodynamics the HERITAGE study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2002 34 74-82. 35 Dalsky, G. P., Stocke, K. S., Ehsani, A. A., et al. Weight-bearing exercise training and lumbar bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. Ann. Intern. Med. 1988 108 824-8.

Treatment

Counseling and pharmacotherapy have a role in assisting women facing challenges and symptoms of menopause. Hormone replacement has a role in alleviating some symptoms, but it has limited application for the psychological stresses of menopause. Mainstays of treatment for psychological manifestations of menopause are pharmacotherapy, exercise, and counseling. Exercise can be helpful and is highly recommended for menopausal women.51 Running can increase bone density without increasing risk of osteoarthritis.52 Exercise is helpful in adjunctive medical treatment of anxiety and depression.53 Daily exercise should be encouraged, since activities such as daily walking and parking further from workplaces and stores ( lifestyle walking ) are as effective as more structured programs.54 Moderate walking for as little as three hours a week will bring significant health benefits and may reduce depression.55 Counseling is an important therapy for a variety of psychological symptoms and conditions...

Evaluating New Tests

From a public health perspective the value of implementing these tests on a population-wide basis will depend to a large extent on whether early treatment of diseases discovered through screening improves the prognosis (Burke et al.). That can be determined only through randomized clinical trials, an expensive process for the array of tests likely to be developed in the near future. However, experience with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for healthy postmenopausal women in which HRT was found to cause more health problems than a placebo (Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators) and a widely used knee surgery technique for osteoarthritis that was found to be ineffective (Moseley et al.) suggests that such trials may be a necessary component of any proposed large-scale screening effort.

Adults

Calcium Bone formation and resorption are balanced in healthy adults, but formation becomes slower than resorption after menopause and also with aging in both men and women. In menopausal women, decreased estrogen production is associated with accelerated bone loss in the first 5 years after menopause, particularly from the lumbar spine. Evidence indicates that although increasing calcium intake at menopause does not prevent this bone loss, it is beneficial for reducing bone loss in compact bones (e.g., hips, legs, and arms). Furthermore, data suggest that calcium supplementation also reduces lumbar spine bone loss in women who are more than 5 years beyond menopause. In the United States, the recommended calcium intake is 1000 mg day for men and women ages 19-50 years and 1200mg day for men and women ages 51-70 years. People who are not able to obtain this amount of calcium from foods should consider taking calcium supplements to help decrease the risk of reduced bone mass and...

Mental health

Research into feeding a high soy isoflavone diet (0.6 mg g isoflavones) to rats investigated the neurobehavioural effects. It was found that soy consumption resulted in very high plasma isoflavone levels, which significantly altered dimorphic brain regions, anxiety, learning and memory.24 Few trials have been carried out in humans, and most of these concentrated on the effects in menopausal women. Evidence that post-menopausal women suffer cognitive decline is possibly due to decreased oestrogen levels, and soy has been considered to be an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), after controversy over evidence suggesting this leads to increase risk in breast cancer, and additionally that the cognitive benefits of HRT may actually be reversed over long-term usage.25 There is limited evidence to substantiate the benefits of soy isoflavones, one trial on 53 postmenopausal women over six months showed a significant improvement in one of five cognitive tests, insignificant...

Nandrolone

Virilization of the Voice in Post-Menopausal Women Due to the Anabolic Steroid Nandrolone Decanoate (Decadurabolin). The Effects of Medication for One Year. Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences 19 (1994) 79-84. Gold, J., et al. Safety and Efficacy of Nandrolone Decanoate for Treatment of Wasting

Conclusion

Osteoporosis (Bainbridge et al., 2000 87 ) on two occasions at baseline (B1 and B2) and then after 4, 7 and 10 months on treatment with HRT or bisphosphonates. Note that NTx does vary before starting treatment, and that there is an early and marked decrease in NTx after starting treatment such that the maximum effect is seen by 4 months in most patients. Note that NTx is in the lower half of the premenopausal reference range in most subjects after 10 months of treatment. osteoporosis (Bainbridge et al., 2000 87 ) on two occasions at baseline (B1 and B2) and then after 4, 7 and 10 months on treatment with HRT or bisphosphonates. Note that NTx does vary before starting treatment, and that there is an early and marked decrease in NTx after starting treatment such that the maximum effect is seen by 4 months in most patients. Note that NTx is in the lower half of the premenopausal reference range in most subjects after 10 months of treatment. be made 3-6 months after starting therapy, and...

Endothelium

Proliferation of endothelial cells can be viewed as a positive or negative factor. It can be positive as a vessel repair mechanism, or negative as in tube vessel formation such as occurs in proliferative diabetic retinopathy or rheumatoid arthritis. In conditions such as atherosclerosis and diabetic retinopathy an intact endothelium is important due to its role in providing an antithrombotic and anticoagulant surface (Vazquez et al. 1999). Gender differences have been found to exist with endothelial cell proliferation. Liu et al. found testosterone, when used at nanomolar concentrations, increased the proliferation of male rat vascular endothelial cells (VEC), but had no effect on the proliferation of female VEC. Nanomolar E2 increased the increased proliferation of both male and female VEC. Vazquez found that progesterone had an inhibitory effect on endothelial cell proliferation acting through PR in WT mice (Vazquez et al. 1999). Espinosa-Heidmann studied 9 month old female mice...

Future Directions

19 Hodsman AB, Fraher LJ, Watson PH, et al. A randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of cyclical parathyroid hormone versus cyclical parathyroid hormone and sequential calcitonin to improve bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997 82 620-8. 28 Neer RM, Arnaud CD, Zanchetta JR, et al. Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Engl J Med 2001 334 1434-41. pare the efficacy of teriparatide recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34) with alendronate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002 87 4528-35.

Theories Of Aging

Telomeres are repeat sequences at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that provide protection and stabilization. Telomeres generally shorten with each replication because of the inability of DNA polymerase to copy the lagging DNA strand. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that synthesizes the telomere. Most human cells are deficient in telomerase, allowing the attrition of the telomere. Short telomeres activate irreversible cell-cycle arrest (cellular senescence and apoptosis).17 Cancer cells have been shown to up-regulate telomerase, prolonging the lifespan of the tumor cells.18 Approximately 90 of cancer cells have high levels of telomerase activity.19 Oxidative damage has been shown to accelerate telomere shortening, and antioxidants have been shown to slow telomere attrition.20 Research suggests that telomere length is a highly heritable trait and that telomeres are longer in women than in men.21 Obesity and smoking have also been shown to decrease telomere length.22 A study...

Introduction

Myeloma, neoplasia, rheumatoid arthritis, bowel disease, psoriasis, obesity, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, reduced longevity, and postmenopausal osteoporosis (1,2). Serum IL6 levels are currently considered a diagnostic marker for tumor progression and prognosis in various types of cancer (renal cell carcinoma, breast, lung, ovarian, and gut cancer) (3,4). Briefly, the IL6 promoter behaves as a sophisticated biosensor for environmental stress, thus controlling immunological homeostasis (5). Interleukin-6 is normally tightly regulated and expressed at low levels, except during infection, trauma, ageing, or other stress conditions (5). Among several factors that can downregulate IL6 gene expression are estrogen and testosterone hormones. After menopause or andropause, IL6 levels are elevated, even in the absence of infection, trauma, or stress (6-8). Natural menopause is associated with a rapid decline in circulating sex hormones and, apart from the loss of reproductive...

Risk Factors

Ethnic background is important when considering risk factors for osteoporosis. Some authors estimate that 30 of the postmenopausal Caucasian population is affected by osteoporosis (11). Caucasian and Asian women are at greater risk for osteoporosis than African-American, African-Caribbean, or Polynesian populations (11,12). African-Caribbean young adults have higher BMD than Caucasian adults at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total body (12). The same studies showed that men have higher baseline BMD than women at all sites, except for the femoral neck. African-American women and men also have lower fracture rates than Caucasian populations (7). African Americans have increased BMD, greater cross-sectional geometric properties in the femoral neck, and smaller endocortical diameter of the femoral neck. These properties allow the femoral neck to resist greater loading in African-American persons compared with Caucasians (13). Body Mass Index. Osteoporosis and body mass index (BMI)...

Acute Gout

Acute gout is characterized by severe pain in a single joint that develops over a period of a few hours. Uric acid is more likely to crystal-ize at lower temperatures, so the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe, the coolest part of the body, is the most common site of gouty attacks, but other joints, typically a knee, shoulder, hand, or another part of the foot or ankle, are the site of presentation in 30 to 50 of cases.10 Gout can present in any joint, and the inflammation can be extremely subtle in some cases hence a search for crystals should be undertaken for all arthritis of unknown etiology. More than half of women with gout have polyarticular disease,11 a presentation that is also common in the elderly. Chronic gout is uncommon but does occur, most often in postmenopausal women. Attacks of acute gout commonly follow trauma or surgery, especially in patients with hyperuricemia.

Natural History

Low back pain is a symptom that has many causes. When approaching the patient with low back pain, the physician should consider three important issues. Is a systemic disease causing the pain Is the patient experiencing social or psychosocial stresses that may amplify or prolong the pain Does the patient have signs of neurological compromise that may require surgical evaluation 14 Useful items on medical history include age, fever, history of cancer, unexplained weight loss, injection drug use, chronic infection, duration of pain, presence of nighttime pain, response to previous therapy, whether pain is relieved by bed rest or the supine position, persistent adenopathy, steroid use, and previous history of tuberculosis.14 Factors that aggravate or alleviate low back pain should also be elicited. Nonmechanical back pain is usually continuous, whereas mechanical back pain is aggravated by motion and relieved by rest. Low back pain that worsens with cough has traditionally been associated...

Natural Cures For Menopause

Natural Cures For Menopause

Are Menopause Symptoms Playing Havoc With Your Health and Relationships? Are you tired of the mood swings, dryness, hair loss and wrinkles that come with the change of life? Do you want to do something about it but are wary of taking the estrogen or antidepressants usually prescribed for menopause symptoms?

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