Anakinra is a nonglycosylated form of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra). It is produced in a recombinant Escherichia coli expression system and has an additional methionine residue at its amino terminus. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, the amount of naturally occurring IL-1ra in the synovial fluid is not sufficient to counteract the high levels of locally produced IL-1. Anakinra acts as a competitive antagonist of the type 1 IL-1 receptor and decreases the pain and inflammation produced by IL-1. It is administered as a daily subcutaneous injection.
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