References

Cure Arthritis Naturally

Beat Arthritis Naturally

Get Instant Access

1. Cherny CI. Opioid analgesics. Comparative features and prescribing guidelines. Drugs 1996;51:713-737.

2. Matthew MT, Nance PW. Analgesics. Opioid, adjuvants and others. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 1999;10:255-273.

3. Butstein HB, Akil H. Opioid analgesics. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, eds. Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:569-619.

4. Staats P, Johnson R. New perspectives on the pharmacology of opioids and their use in chronic pain. A Dannemiller pain management monograph. December 2001. Available at: http://www.pain.com/articles/onepage. cfm?chapter_id=85. Accessed November 4, 2002.

5. Dellemijn P. Are opioids effective in relieving neuropathic pain? Pain 1999;80:453-462.

6. Carr DB, Jacox AK, Chapman CR, et al. Acute Pain Management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 1. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services; February 1992. AHCPR publication 92-0032.

7. World Health Organization. Cancer Pain Relief: With a Guide to Opioid Availability. 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1996.

8. Zech D, Grond S, Lynch J, et al. Validation of World Health Organization guidelines for cancer pain relief: a 10 year prospective study. Pain 1989;17:1281.

9. Jacox AK, Carr DB, Payne R, et al. Management of Cancer Pain Guideline No. 9. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services; March 1994. AHCPR publication 94-0592.

10. American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Arthritis Rheum 2002;43:1905-1915.

11. Roth SH, Fleischmann RM, Burch FX, et al. Around-the-clock, controlled-release oxycodone therapy for osteoarthritis-related pain: Placebo-controlled trial and long-term evaluation. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:853-860.

12. American Medical Directors Association. Chronic Pain Management in the Long-Term Care Setting. Columbia, MD: American Medical Directors Association, 1999.

13. AGS Panel on Persistent Pain in Older Persons. The management of persistent pain in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:1-20.

14. Vigano O, Bruera E, Suarez-Almazor ME. Age, pain intensity, and opioid dose in patients with advanced cancer. Cancer 1998;83:1244-1250.

15. Portenyo RK. Management of common opioid side effects during long-term therapy of cancer pain. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1994;23:160-170.

16. Levy MH. Pharmacologic treatment of cancer pain. New Engl J Med 1996;335:1124-1132.

17. Sykes NP. Oral naloxone in opioid associated constipation. Lancet 1991;337:1475.

18. Culpepper-Morgan JA, Inturrisi CE, Portenoy RK, et al. Treatment of opioid induced constipation with oral naloxone: a pilot study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992;52:90-95.

19. Yuan C, Foss JF. Oral methylnaltrexone for opioid-induced constipation. JAMA 2000;284:1383-1384. Available at: http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/ v284n11/ffull/jlt0920-6.html. Accessed March 10, 2003.

20. Campora E, Merlini L, Pace M, et al. The incidence of narcotic induced emesis. J Pain Symptom Manage 1991;6:428-430.

21. American Academy of Pain Medicine, American Pain Society, and American Society of Addiction Medicine. Definitions related to the use of opioids for the treatment of pain. American Academy of Pain Medicine Web page. Available at: http://www.painmed.org/productpub/statements/. Accessed March 10, 2003.

22. Hagen NA, Foley KM, Cerbone DJ, et al. Chronic nausea and morphine-6-glucuronide. J Pain Symptom Manage 1991;6:125-128.

23. Poyhia R, Vainio A, Kalso E. A review of oxycodone's clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Curr Ther Res 1978;24:633-645.

24. Jeal W, Benfield P. Transdermal fentanyl: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in pain control. Drugs 1997;53:109-138.

25. Holdsworth MT, Forman WB, Killilea TA, et al. Transdermal fentanyl disposition in elderly subjects. Gerontology 1994;40:32-37.

26. Duragesic package insert. Available at: http://www.duragesic.com/files/ duragesic_pres_info.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2003.

27. Marquardt KA, Tharratt RS, Musallam NA. Fentanyl remaining in a transdermal system following 3 days of continuous use. Ann Pharmacother 1995;29:969-971.

28. Carter KA. Heat-associated increase in transdermal fentanyl absorption. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2003;60:191-192.

29. Newshan G. Heat-related toxicity with the fentanyl transdermal patch. J Pain Symptom Manage 1998;16:277-278.

30. Clark RF, Wei EM, Anderson PO. Meperidine: therapeutic use and toxicity. J Emerg Med 1995;13:797-802.

31. Perin ML. Problems with propoxyphene. Am J Nurs 2000;100:22.

32. Cleary JF. Methadone: the ideal long-acting opioid? AAHPM Bull Winter 2002:6-7, 13.

33. Wheeler WL, Dickerson ED. Clinical applications of methadone. Am J Hospice Palliat Care 2002;17:196-203.

34. Davis MP, Walsh D. Methadone for relief of cancer pain: a review of phar-macokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interactions and protocols of administration. Support Care Cancer 2001;9:73-83.

35. Krantz MJ, Lawkowiez LL, Hays H, et al. Torsade de pointes associated with very-high-dose methadone. Ann Int Med 2002;137:501-504.

36. Diener KM. Bisphosphonates for controlling pain from metastatic bone disease. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1996;53:1917-1927.

37. Goldstein FJ. Adjuncts to opioid therapy. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2002;102(9 Suppl 3):S15-S21.

38. Guay DRP. Adjunctive agents in the management of chronic pain. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:1070-1081.

39. McQuay HJ, Tramer M, Nye BA, et al. A systematic review of antidepressants in neuropathic pain. Pain 1996;68:217-227.

40. Sindrup SH, Jensen TS. Efficacy of pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: an update and effect related to mechanism of drug action. Pain 1999;83:389-400.

41. McNamara JO. Drugs effective in the therapy of the epilepsies. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, eds. Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2001:521-547.

42. Gloth FM III, Tobin JD. A review of vitamin D deficiency in the elderly: what we know and what we don't. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43:822-828.

43. Ross EL. The evolving role of antiepileptic drugs in treating neuropathic pain. Neurology 2000;55(Suppl 1):S41-S46.

44. Watson CPN. Topical capsaicin as an adjuvant analgesic. J Pain Symptom Manage 1994;9:425-433.

45. Mao J, Chen LL. Systemic lidocaine for neuropathic pain relief. Pain 2000;87:7-17.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Thank you for deciding to learn more about the disorder, Osteoarthritis. Inside these pages, you will learn what it is, who is most at risk for developing it, what causes it, and some treatment plans to help those that do have it feel better. While there is no definitive “cure” for Osteoarthritis, there are ways in which individuals can improve their quality of life and change the discomfort level to one that can be tolerated on a daily basis.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment