Dura Mater

The dura mater has rich innervations, particularly on the ventral aspect and around the nerve root sleeves.

Table 26.5 Differential diagnosis of low back pain.

Mechanical low back or leg pain

Non-mechanical low back pain

Visceral disease

Lumbar strain/sprain

Neoplasia

Pelvic disease

Degenerative disease

Metastatic carcinoma

Endometriosis

Disk

Multiple myeloma

Pelvic inflammatory

Facet joints

Lymphoma, leukemia

disease

Herniated disk

Spinal cord tumors

Prostatitis

Spinal stenosis

Retroperitoneal tumors

Renal disease

Fractures

Infection

Nephrolithiasis

Compression (osteoporosis)

Osteomyelitis

Pyelonephritis

Traumatic

Diskitis

Vasular disease

Spondylolisthesis

Epidural abscess

Abdominal aortic

Congenital disease

Paraspinal abscess

aneurysm

Severe kyphosis

Shingles

Gastrointestinal disease

Severe scoliosis

Inflammatory arthritis

Pancreatitis

Transitional vertebrae

Ankylosing spondylitis

Cholecystitis

Psoriatic spondylitis

Reiter's syndrome

Inflammatory bowel disease

Paget's disease

Modified from Deyo (2001) - with permission.

Modified from Deyo (2001) - with permission.

Table 26.6 Anatomical sources of low back pain.

• Vertebral bodies

• Sacroiliac joints

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