Location and Distribution

While pain arising from a peripheral source is highly localizable, pain that arises from a deep somatic or visceral structure may be elusive to locate. Visceral pain can often be referred. For example, kidney pathology may cause pain in the inguinal or testicular area. Thus, depending on location and involvement of neural signaling of the injury, a patient's pain may range from a precise location to whole body pain. When determining the location and distribution of an individual's pain, the...

References

Allais G, De Lorenzo C, Quirico PE, Airola G, Tolardo G, Mana O, Benedetto C. Acupuncture in prophylactic treatment of migraine comparison with flunarizine. Headache 2002 42 855-61. Anderson JL, Lilja A, Hartvig P, Langstrom B, Gordh T, Handwerker H, Torebjork E. Somatotopic organization along the central sulcus, for pain localization in human as revealed by positron emission tomography. Exp Brain Res. 1997 117 192-9. Baischer W. Acupuncture in Migraine Long-term outcome and predicting factors....

Devils Claw

Devil's claw has been used to treat pain symptoms from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, myalgia, fibrositis, lumbago, tendonitis, pleuritic chest pain, and gastrointestinal upset. The active constituent, harpagoside, seems to reduce nonspecific low back pain when used in a dose range from 50 to 100 mg. In fact, its use in this range has been compared to 12.5 mg of the discontinued drug, rofecoxib (Chrubasik et al. 2002, Gagnier et al. 2004, Chrubasik et al. 2005). Additionally, oral...

Capsicum annuum

Capsicum annuum, also known as Cayenne pepper, has been used orally for upset stomach, toothache, poor circulation, fever, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease prevention. Capsicum can be used topically to treat pain associated with osteoarthritis, shingles, rheumatoid arthritis, post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, fibromyalgia, and back pain. Others have used Capsicum for reliefofmuscle spasms and even as a gargle for laryngitis (Covington et al. 1996, Mason et al....

Psychotherapy

There are multiple psychotherapy approaches to assist the patient with chronic, non-malignant pain however, the approach that has received the most empirical attention in terms of its applicability to pain treatment has been cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). This section will primarily focus on a description of the CBT paradigm, its goals, and the research on its uses in pain management. Fundamentally, the basic assumption of CBT is that although one cannot always control or avoid distressing...

Laboratory Testing

Because there are numerous laboratory tests available, the physician must use the patient's history and physical to accurately determine which laboratory tests to perform. Commonly used tests include a complete blood count (CBC), acute-phase proteins erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), c-reactive protein (CRP) , blood chemistry, rheumatologic, and infectious disease studies. The CBC helps provide an estimate of a person's general health. Based on the hematocrit level, an indication of that...

Boswellia

Boswellia, also known as Indian Frankincense, has been used to manage pain associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), rheumatism, bursitis, and tendonitis. Non-pain-related uses include ulcerative colitis, dyspepsia, asthma, allergic rhinitis, sore throat, syphilis, pimples, and cancer. There is preliminary evidence that taking Indian Frankincense extract orally might reduce osteoarthritis symptoms such as knee pain and swelling (Kimmatkar et al. 2003), while its use in...

In Sickle cell anemia the following is true of a sickle cell crisis EXCEPT

Present with acute chest pain, abdominal pain, or bone pain B. Dehydration can worsen the effects of sickling D. Treating pain has no effect in shortening the duration ofthe acute phase. 4. The following statement is true regarding electro therapy for ischemic pain A. Spinal cord stimulation is an option for relieving pain and salvaging the limb B. TENS has a role in rehabilitation 1. The answer is A. Raynaud's commonly affects fingers and toes. It is precipitated by cold and emotional...

Types of Chronic Ischemic Pain

Ischemic pain can be associated with acute problems such as acute coronary syndrome, arterial embolism, acute deep venous thrombosis, compartment syndrome, ischemic bowel, and other emergencies Bonica 1990b . This section will outline essentials of pain management of the conditions associated with chronic ischemia. Common and some rare clinical conditions associated with chronic ischemic pain are listed in Table 24.1. Signs and symptoms of these conditions are listed in Table 24.2. The most...