Spinal Cord Compression

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Nonneoplastic causes

Spondylosis

Intervertebral disk herniation

Spinal stenosis and neurogenic claudication

Paget's disease (osteitis deformans)

Osteoporosis

Syringomyelia

Arachnoid cysts

Pyogenic infections

Other infectious and inflammatory diseases

- Tuberculosis

- Fungal infections

- Parasitic disease

- Sarcoidosis

- Rheumatoid arthritis

- Ankylosing spondylitis

Spinal hemorrhage Intramedullary, subarachnoid, subdural, and epidural

Neoplastic causes

Epidural tumors

• Gastrointestinal

• Miscellaneous

- Primary spinal neoplasms • Multiple myeloma

• Osteogenic sarcoma

• Chondrosarcoma

• Fibrous histiocytoma

• Giant-cell tumor

• Benign tumors

Intradural and extra-medullary tumors

- Meningioma

- Nerve sheath tumors

- Vascular malformations and tumors

- Epidural and dermoid cysts and teratomas

- Lipoma

Intramedullary tumors

- Ependymoma

- Astrocytoma

- Intramedullary metastases

Leptomeningeal metastases

Noncompressive myelopathies simulating spinal cord compression

Transverse and ascending myelitis

- Postinfectious and postvaccination myelitis

- Multiple sclerosis

- Devic's disease (optic neuromyelitis)

- Acute necrotizing myelitis

Viral myelitis

- Acute anterior poliomyelitis

- Postpoliomyelitis syndrome

- Herpes zoster

- AIDS-related myelopathies

Spirochetal disease of the spinal cord

- Syphilis

- Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)

Toxic and deficiency myelo-pathies

- Myelopathy after aortography

- Myelopathy due to in- Penicillin, methylene blue, spinal anesthetics, trathecal agents intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate, cytosine, arabinoside, and thiotepa

• Schwannomas

• Neurofibromas

- Spinal arachnoiditis

- Radiation myelopathy

- Electrical injuries

Metabolic and nutritional myelopathy

- Subacute combined Multiple nutritional deficiencies degeneration of the cord

- Nutritional myelopathy Nicotinic acid and several other vitamin deficien cies, as well as caloric malnutrition

- Myelopathy associated with liver disease

Spinal cord infarction

- Arterial infarction

- Venous infarction

Autoimmune diseases

- Sjögren's syndrome

- Systemic lupus ery-thematosus

Paraneoplastic myelo-

pathy

Neuronal degeneration

- Spinocerebellar ataxia (Friedreich's ataxia)

- Hereditary motor neuron disease

- Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

- Werdnig-Hoffmann disease

AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

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