Subject Index

Modern Ayurveda

Ayurveda the Science of Life

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Abrus precatorius 30, 70

absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) 35

accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) 10

acetyl eugenol 359

N-acetylglucosamine lectin 318, 330

N-acetylmuramyl-pentapeptide 224

Achyrocline satureioides 279

acidic arabinogalactan 344

Acinetobacter 175

acne 17

aconite 44

Aconitum casmanthum 70 Acorus calamus 65 acridine orange 274ff. actinomycetale 294 active compound 28, 45, 67, 295 active oxygen 86

active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) 33

acupuncture 60, 72

acute interstitial nephritis 21

acute respiratory infection 17

acute tubular necrosis 21

acyclovir 316ff., 327ff.

N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) 187

adenovirus 248, 320, 330

ADP phosphorylation 20

adulteration 40, 69, 353

ADV 317, 329ff.

adverse effect 33ff., 60ff., 352

- phytocompound 352

aflatoxin 35f.

African herbalism 27

agar dilution 105, 159, 162

Agaricus blazei 273

Agrocybe cylindracea 273

AHL, see N-acyl homoserine lactone

AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) 42, 126, 315, 352, 360 ajoene 330

Alchemillae tinctura 280 alcohol-related disorder 233 alkaline elution 284 alkaloid 178, 252f., 263ff., 276ff., 296ff.,

313ff., 328 alkyl dimethyl betaine (ADB) 163 alkylamide 32 alkyne 297 allergic reaction 20, 43 allicin 82ff., 224 allinase 82 Allium

allylsulfide 272 Aloe succotrina 130 aloe emodin 322 aloe polymannose 330 aloe vera 44 alpha-amyfrin 237 alprazolam 353 amantadine 319 amentoflavone 321ff. Ames test 278ff. 2-aminofluorene 277ff. Ammi visnaga 130 Amoebiasis, hepatic 255 ampicillin 137ff., 177ff., 223 Anacardiaceae 254ff. analgesic use 63 analytical method 37 anaphylaxis 353 andrographolide 322 t-anethole 252 angiogenesis 351 animal 14

- excreta 14

anthelmintic activity 114, 125

anthocyan 272 anthocyanin 86, 272ff., 315ff anthrax 83

anthroquinone 277ff., 317 Anthyllis vulnararia 280 anti-HIV activity 101 anti-MRSA activity 137ff. anti-VRE activity 137ff antiamoebic activity 63 antibabesial activity 115 antibacterial activity 70, 79ff., 104ff., 143ff., 158ff., 173ff., 249, 272, 351

- test organism 108 antibacterial compound

- synergism 142 antibiofilm activity 225 antibiotic 173, 188

antibiotic resistance 100, 174, 189, 200 anticarcinogen 272ff., 285 anticandidal activity 18 anticlastogenicity 278ff. anticoagulation effect 84 antidiabetic activity 128 antidiarrheal activity 247ff. antiencephalitis drug 325 antifungal activity 112f., 158ff. antifungal assay 165 antigenotoxic activity 272ff. antihelminthic activity 250 antiherpes agent 316, 332 antihumidity effect 94 antiinfective agent 100 antiinflammatory activity 110, 131, 212,

272, 351 antimalarial activity 70 antimicrobial activity 18, 105, 126ff., 157ff., 175ff., 212, 249ff., 329

- effectiveness 223

- general 200

- specific 201 antimicrobial agent 17, 180 antimutagenesis 46 antimutagenic activity 271ff., 282ff. antimutagenicity 271ff., 282ff. antimycobacterial activity 293ff., 306ff antimycobacterial drug 295, 308f. antioxidant 82ff., 106ff., 212, 241, 272ff.,

antiparasitic activity 113, 167 antiparasitic assay 160 antiplasmodial activity 115 antiprotozoal activity 250 antipyretic activity 131

antirabies drug 325 antiretroviral agent 316ff. antirotavirus activity 254 antiseptic activity 211 antiseptic effect 94

- intestinal 125 antispasmodic activity 211 antisporulation activity 165 antithrombotic activity 82 antitumoral activity 131, 212, 351 antitumor potency 89ff.

antiviral activity 167, 250, 272, 316ff., 329ff.

antiviral assay 160

Apiaceae 132

apigenin 280

Aquillaria agallocha 282

arctiin 326

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 17, 224 Argania spinosa 132 arganine 318ff., 328 Arnica spp. 44 aromadendrin 325 aromatherapy 60 aromatics 273, 297 aromoline alkaloid 329 Artemisia herba-alba 129f. arterial sclerosis 80 arthritis 80 ASAS 89 ascorbic acid 276ff ash content 35 Asian medicine 61, 69ff. asiaticoside 331 Aspergillus 36, 359

- ochraeus 359

- parasiticus 359 aspirin 86, 314 assessment

- in vivo 166 Asteraceae 254ff., 349 asthma 352

Astragulus lusitanicus 132 astringency 327

atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

(APCI) 12 Atropa belladonna 44 atropine 314 autoimmunity 342 Ayurveda 61ff., 314, 330 Ayurvedic herbalism 27 azelaic acid 237 azoles 212

Baccharis amomola 279 Bacillus

- subtilis 82

- anthracis 83

- Calmette-Guérin (BCG) 294ff. Backhousia citridora 158ff. bacteria 272ff., 283ff.

- enteric 225

-multi-drug resistant (MDR) 1, 17

bacterial disease 349

bacterial infection 97fff., 182

bacterial outer membrane 200

baicalin 224, 318ff balsam 330

baicalein 318ff.

barberry 263

Barlerii randii 280

Basella alba 274

bayberry 263

bearberry 17

benzo[a]pyrene 277f benzoic acid 330

berberine 179ff., 225, 263, 329

Berberis 225

- repens 179

- vulgaris 263 bergamottin epoxide 225 betulinic acid 321ff. Bidens pilosa 341ff.

Big blue mouse 284

bilharzia 115

bioactive metabolite 68

bioactivity, see also phytocompound 61ff.

bioassay-guided isolation 106

bioautography 106

bioavailability 67, 179

biochemical detection (BCD) 5

biodiversity 99

biofilm 187

bioflavonoid 326

biological activity 5, 68ff., 123ff.

- expression 107 biotransformation 283ff. biscoclaurine alkaloid 329 black cohosh 44

blood coagulation time 79 blood thinning drug 86 Bombacaeae 258 bone marrow 272f., 284 botanical identity 15 botanical therapeutics 73 botanicals 60

Botrytis cinerea 127 bovine rotavirus 326 Brassica 272ff

- oleraceae 274 brevifolin 320

brine shrimp assay 115 broad-spectrum antihepatic agent 350 bronchopulmonary 125 broth 141

- dilution method 160ff. Bryophyllum pinnatum 274 bryostatin 334

buchu 99

Bulinus truncatus 131 Bupleurum chinensis 350

Caenorhabditis elegans 114ff. caesalmin 317ff. Caesalpinia

- pulcherrima 275ff.

- sappan 224

- spinosa 224

caffeic acid 237, 273ff., 317ff., 344

- phenyl ester 273 caffeine 352 caffeoyl derivative 345 calanolides 318ff. Calophyllum moonii 224 Calotropis

- procera 131

calozeyloxanthone 137ff., 224 CAM, see complimentary and alternative medicine

Camellia sinensis 182ff., 223, 253, 274f. camelliatannin 318ff. Campylobacter 174, 248

- jejuni 253

cancer 21, 64f., 79ff., 271ff., 282ff., 342 Candida 126

- albicans 97, 113, 127, 164, 223, 363 cape aloe 99

capillary electrophoresis (CE) 12, 353 capillary isoelectric focusing (cIEF) 12 capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) 12 capsaicin 321

carbapenemase-producing organism 211 carbapenemes 223 carcinogenesis 273ff., 286ff. carcinogenic agent 271ff., 285ff cardiotoxicity 44 cardiovascular disease 272

Carica papaya 260 Caricaceae 260 carnosic acid 225 carnosol 225 carvacrol 211, 252, 359 Carum carvi 274 Cassia corymbosa 279 castor oil 256 casuarinin 317ff. catechin 86, 275ff., 318ff. catechol 322 Catharantus roseus 65, 123 CD4 91ff., 325ff., 330ff cedar wood oil 314 cefotaxime 223

cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) 185 cell viability indicator 164 cell wall 174, 225 Centaurii extractum 280 cephalosporinase 177 cepharanthine 318ff. chaulmoogra 293ff. chebulic acid 318 chemical fertilizer 16 chemical pattern recognition 38 chemo-variety 32 chemokine ligand 351 chemopreventive effect 272ff. chemoprotection 285 chemotaxis 345

chemotaxonomic plant selection 101 chemotherapy 293ff. Chenopodium ambrosioides 131 chicoric acid 321 Chinese herbalism 27 Chinese traditional medicine 320 chloramphenicol 176ff chloroform 276ff., 296 chlorogenic acid 317ff. cholera 174 cholesterol 43, 90 chromatographic fingerprint 38 chromatographic technique 71 chromatography, see also

- high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

- thin layer chromatography (TLC)

- gas chromatography (GC) 31f.

- high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS) 12

- hyphenated 38

- over-pressured layer chromatography

chromosomal aberration 20 chromosomal interchange 283 chromosomal deletion 283 chronic interstitial nephritis 21 chronic disease 17, 272 chrysin 321ff chrysophanic acid 324 chrysoplenetin 225 chrysosplenol 319ff. cichoric acid 344

CIMAP (Central Institute of Medicinal and

Aromatic Plant) 66 cinnamic acid 322 Cinnamomum 359

- cassia 278 cinnamon oil 358f. ciprofloxacin 225 cirrhosis 233ff. Cistaceae 255 citral 280 citronellol 280 Citrullus colocynthis 129 clarithromycin 224 clastogenicity 278ff. clavulanic acid 182 clinical trial 52, 332 clove oil 358f.

CMV 330 co-carcinogenic 271 co-recombinogens 281 Coffee arabica 274 colchicine 314 colon carcinogenesis 273 colonization 185 combination therapy 181 combinatorial chemistry 5 combinatorial library 22 Combretaceae 101ff. combretastatin B5 112 Combretum

- apiculatum 112

- erythrophyllum 102ff., 280

- imberbe 112

- kraussii 112

- microphyllum 104

- molle 106

- padoides 112

- woodii 105ff. comfrey 44f.

complimentary and alternative medicine

(CAM) 60, 72, 263 complimentary medicine 178 compound, see also phytocompound

- secondary 102

ConA 344

congestive heart failure 43 conidium germination 165 conjugation 174ff., 189, 225 contact dermatitis 353 contamination 14, 69ff. contraindication 43 copper 241

Coriandrum sativum 274 corilagin 224 corona virus 87, 319ff corticosteroid 352 Corynanthe 45

coumadin (warfarin) 69, 86, 321ff., 353

coumarin 31ff., 178, 281f.

coumermycin 190

Coxsackie virus 316ff., 329f.

CPE 331

cranberry 17, 158

creatinine 132

Cruciferae 263

crude plant extract

- high throughput screening (HTS) 3f. Cryptococcus neoformans 97, 113 cryptolepine 253 Cryptosporidium 248

cucurbitacin 315 p-cumaric acid 237 Cunninghamella echinulata 127 Curcuma

- domestica 274

- longa 275ff. curcumin 319 cyanogenetic glycodide 44 cyclin E 351 cyclophosphamide 273ff. cyclosporine 69 p-cymene 162, 211, 252 cystic fibrosis 188 cytochrome P450 46, 253, 266 cytopathic effect 331 cytotoxicity 44f., 89, 115

d daidzein 326 DAP 322 datura 44

- Datura metel 70 degranulation of mast cell 351 dehydration-rehydration vesicle (DRV) 361 Delinea pulchra 188f.

dengue virus (DEN-2) 317ff designer foods project 80 desmutagen 278

deterioration 33, 41 devil's claw 99 diabetes 71, 80, 90 Dialium guincense 274 diallyl disulfide 82 diallylsulfide 82 diaphoretic activity 211 diarrhea 17, 248ff.

- disease 247ff. dietary supplement 62 diethyl ether 278 diethylstilbestrol 281 diffusion method 126 digestive pathology 125 digitalis 44

- Digitalis purpurea 123 digitoxin 123 digoxin 69, 353 dimethylsulfide 82

disk diffusion method 159ff. diterpene 281 diuresis 129 diurnal variation 14 DNA 315ff., 329ff.

- polymerase 320ff., 330

- strand break 283

- unscheduled synthesis 284 Drosophila 281

drug 28

- adverse interaction 43

- extrusion 200

- identification number (DIN) 48

- inactivating 200

- poisonous 70

- regulation 264

- resistance 177 -resistant bacteria 173, 200, 211

- resistant microorganism 199ff.

- source 177

- susceptibility method 167 drug effect, adverse 14, 33 drug-herb interaction 12 drying 32, 102 drymaritin 318ff. Dryopteris 45

Ebers papyrus 314 Ebola fever 315 Echinacea 32, 44, 344ff

- angustifolia 344

- pallida 344

- purpurea 62, 344ff.

- general property 344 echinacoside 344 echovirus 316, 330 eclipase phase 329 ecological niches 315

efflux pump 175ff., 224

electrical field stimulation (EFS) 257

electrolyte reabsorption 247

electron impact ionization (EI) 12

electrophoretic technique 38

electrospray ionization (ESI) 12

elementology 240

ellagitannin 319ff emmenagogue 125

emodin 182

endpoint titre 331

energy metabolism 20

Entamoeba histolytica 250

enteric bacteria 173ff enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), see

Escherichia coli Enterobacteriaceae 174ff Enterococcus 175 ff enterovirus 248, 330 enzymatic activation 285 enzyme

- activity 174

- drug-inactivating (detoxifying) 200, 285

- drug-metabolizing 284

- thiol-containing 212 Eonumus spp. 44 epedra 44

epicatechin gallate 223ff., 275ff., 282 epidemiological data 272 Epidermophyton spp. 166 epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) 182f., 224f.,

282, 325 Epstein Barr virus 319ff Erigeron canadensis 280 erybraedin A 224 Erythrina zeyheri 224 erythrocyte 272f. eryzerin C 224

Escherichia coli 36, 173ff., 191, 225, 248ff., 284, 363

- enterohemorragic E. coli O157:H7 80f.

- enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 252 essential oil 6, 17, 60, 127, 158ff., 178, 211,

- vapor 162

- volatile constituent 162 ethambutol 294ff. ethnic community 332ff.

ethnobotany 20, 100f., 125ff.

ethnomedicine 313ff., 334

ethnopharmacology 123ff., 315

ethnoveterinary medicine 100, 116

ethyl acetate 275ff.

eucalyptus oil 328

Eucommia ulmoides 274

Eugenia 359

eugeniin 317ff.

eugenol 359

Euphorbia

- E. neriifolia 70 Euphorbiaceae 255ff. European traditional medicine 61 euxanthone 277ff.

extended spectrum p-lactamase 177ff. extract 29, 105, 164

- acetone 296

- antimicrobial activity 157ff.

- ethanolic 296ff.

- fractionated 164

- in vivo efficacy 117

- methanol 224, 297ff.

- plant 123ff.

- stability 110

- storage 105 extraction 6, 25ff., 103

- accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) 10

- alcohol 6

- efficiency 104

- organic 6

- plant material 103

- polarity of solvent 103

- selective 103f. extrinsic factor 14 extrusion of drug 200

f fabatin 322 Fanconi's syndrome 21 Fassiflora incarnata 260 fatty acid 297

- ester 297 fatty liver 235f. fatty oil 60

Ferula communis 132 ferulic acid 237, 344 FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) 62

fingerprint chromatogram 39 fisetin 275ff. flavanone derivative 139 flavone 324ff., 225

flavonol 321ff., 86

304, 313ff., 324ff. flavor 84, 95 fluoroquinolone 177, 225 fluoroquinone 321ff. folk medicine 326ff., 357 food herb 44

foot and mouth disease virus 329 formulation 64ff.

- polyherbal 238ff. fosfomycin 137, 149

fraction inhibitory concentration (FIC) 137

free radical 80, 324

fumaric acid 238

functional food 73

fungal disease 349

fungal infection 97ff., 165

fungi 17, 84, 166

- multi-drug resistant 1, 17

- toxigenic 36 Fusarium 36

- F. graminearum 359

- F. proliferatum 359

fusion 330 g p-galactosidase 132, 284 galangin 325 galen 314 gallic acid 327

GAP, see Good Agricultural Practice Gardia 248ff.

garlic 17, 82, 158, 224, 253, 330, 353 Garcinia mangostana 184, 224 gas chromatography (GC) 31f.

- high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS) 12

gastrointestinal transit 251 GCTP, see Good Clinical Trial Practice gelsemium 44 gene transfer 179ff., 200

- mechanism 189

genetic exchange mechanism 179 genetic factor 14 genetic mutation 200 genistein 326 gentamicin 137ff. Gentianaceae 252 Geraniaceae 252, 263 geraniin 318ff. Geranium caespitosum 225 germanium 241

Giardia lamblia 168 ginger 257 ginkgo 33

- Ginkgo biloba 44, 62ff. ginseng 44, 353

- powder 79ff. glabrene 276ff Globularia alypum 129f. Gloriosa superba 70 p-glucosidase 132 a-glycan 273 p-glycan 90 glycitrin 326 glycoalkaloid 329 glycogen 92f. glycolipid 307 glycoprotein (gp) 326

- gp120 321ff. Glycyrrhiza 212

- G. glabra 65, 274ff. glycyrrhizin 318ff.

GMP, see Good Manufacturing Practice gnemonol B 137ff.

gnetin E 137ff

Gnidia kraussiana 280

Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) 22, 32f.,

59, 73, 318ff., 329ff. Good Clinical Trial Practice (GCTP) 73 Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) 22,

59, 72f., 264 Good Sourcing Practice (GSP) 59, 73 gotu kola 295f gpt delta mouse 284 gram-negative bacteria 18, 97, 177ff., 200, 212, 358

gram-positive bacteria 97, 177ff., 200f., 212,

293, 358 grapefruit oil 225 Grifola frondosa 79, 88f. GSP, see Good Sourcing Practice guarana 342, 352 guava 253

Haemonchus contortus 114 Haemophilus influenzae 174, 187 ham-hong-chho 350 Hamilton rating scale of anxiety

(HAMA) 95 Hamilton rating scale for depression

(HAMD) 95 Hansen's disease, see leprosy harman 322ff. harvest 14, 16, 32 hawthorn 353

hazard analysis and critical control point

(HACCP) 35 HBV, see hepatitis B virus HCV, see hepatitis C virus health care 59ff., 125 heart disease 86 heavy metal 14, 35, 69ff. Heliantheum glomeratum 255 Helichrysum italicum G. Don 211 Heliobacter pylori 127, 185, 212

- clarithromycin-resistant 212, 224 helminths 350 hemadsorption 332 hemagglutinin 329ff.

heme oxygenase 241

hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) 81

hepadnaviridae 313ff.

heparin 86

hepatic amoebiasis 255

hepatic coma 235

hepatic disorder 233ff.

hepatitis 233ff., 320, 333

- chronic 236

- hepatitis A 235f.

- hepatitis B 235f.

- hepatitis B virus (HBV) 318ff., 330ff.

- HBV carrier 320, 333

- HCV protease 318ff. hepatocellular carcinoma 273, 320 hepatocyte 284

hepatoprotective activity 212, 238 hepatotoxicity 44, 353

- CCl4-induced 239 hepatotoxin 350 herb 27, 272ff

- poisonous 44

- product 21

herb-drug interaction 41f., 69ff herbal drug 25ff., 67

- adulteration 40

- contamination 41f.

- quality control 30

- screening 45

- toxicity 43

herbal drug preparation 13 herbal medicine 32, 59ff., 72ff. herbal preparation 59

herbal product 60ff., 357

- labeling 46 herbal remedy 247ff. herbal supplement 39 herbalism 60 herbicide 14ff.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 167, 316ff., 325ff.

herpesvirus 316 ff., 328ff. hesperetin 282

heterocyclic aromatic amine 284ff. hexamethylphosphoramide 284 Hexamita 168 hiba tree 80, 94

high performance liquid chromatography

(HPLC) 5, 31, 32, 67ff., 298, 353 -mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) 12

- tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) 12

high performance thin layer chromatography

(HPTLC) 38, 73 high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) -mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS) 12 high resolution screening (HRS) 5

- HRS-MS (mass spectrometry) 6 high throughput screening (HTS) 3f. high throughput system 160 hinokitiol (hiba oil) 80, 94 Hippocastani extractum 280 Hippocrateaceae 252

hiratake 90

HIV, see human immunodeficiency virus homeopathy 60ff.

honey 166

honeybee 272

honeybush 99

horseradish 84

Houttuynia cordata 84

HPLC, see high performance liquid chromatography HPTLC, see high performance thin layer chromatography HRGC, see high resolution gas chromatography HRS, see high resolution screening HSV, see Herpes simplex virus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 42, 167, 212, 315ff., 325ff.

- budding 330

- integrase 319

- protease 318, 327

human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV-2) 167

hydrophilic surface 18

hydrophobic compound 362 hydroxyl radical 345 hyperbilirubinemia 241 Hyperici tinctura 280 hypericin 317 Hypericum perforatum 62 hypersensitivity 69 hypertension 21, 43, 90, 129 hyphenated chromatography 38 hypokalemia 21 hypolipidaemic activity 82

i illudin S 90

ILSMR, see intensifiers of p-lactam-

susceptibility in MRSA imipenem 223 immune cell 89ff., 343ff. immune system 272, 342ff. - Echinacea 345

immunomodulatory effect 341ff., 294 immunosuppressive effect 349 Indian medicinal plant 64ff., 184 Indian system of medicine (ISM) 66ff. inductively coupled plasma (ICP) 35 infectious disease 17, 98ff., 174 inflammatory bowel disease 352 influenza virus 316ff., 330 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) 168 integrase 321

intensifiers of p-lactam-susceptibility in

MRSA (ILSMR) 224 interferon 333, 346 interleukin 345ff. intestinal motility 247 intoxication 20 intrinsic factor 14 ion trap 12 iridoid 317 isatidine 284 isoflavonoid 224 isoniazid (INH) 294ff., 306 isoprene 328 isoquinoline 319ff.

isotussilagine 344 j jacalin 322ff. Janus carcinogen 280 Japanese cypress 80, 94 Japanese herbs 79ff. Jaundice, neonatal 241 Junin virus 319ff.

kampo 61

kava kava 44, 353

Klebsiella 253

- K. pneumoniae 175f.

LacZ plasmid mouse 284 P-lactam 176f., 223f. p-lactamase 173ff

- extended spectrum P-lactamase 177ff.

- inhibitor 173ff. Laminaceae 255ff.

Lampteromyces japonicus Singer 79, 88ff

Lannea edulis 280

larvicidal effect 131

Lassa fever 315

lavender 162ff.

lawinal 326

lecithin 272

lectin 329

legislation 47

Leguminoceae 252

Leishmania 168

lemon balm 17

lemon myrtle 158

Lentinula edodes 273

leprosy 293ff.

Letospermum petersonii 164

leukocyte 5-lipoxygenase activity 345

leukotriene B4 biosynthesis 351

licorice 314, 353

life-style related disease 79f.

lignan 319, 327

lignin 252

linalool 162

linalyl acetate 162

a-linoleic acid 225

lipopolysaccharide 18ff.

liposome 357ff.

- dehydration-rehydration vesicle (DRV) 361

- multivesicular liposome (MVL) 361

- oligolamellar vesicle (OLV) 361

- reverse phase evaporation vesicle (REV) 361

liquiritin 326

Listeria monocytogenes 36

Lithospermum erythrorhizon 341, 351

liver cancer 233ff.

liver disorder 125, 235ff., 349

Lobelia 44

London Pharmacopeias 314

longifoline 252 Lucea divaricata 279 Lupinus argenteus 225 luteoside 317ff. Lux1 187 LuxR 187

Lycopersicon esculentum 274 lycorine 329

MABA (microplate alamar blue assay)

298ff. macerate 29 macrolide 224 macrophage 323, 345ff MAE (microwave-assisted extraction) 10 maesasaponin 317f., 328 maitake 79, 88f. malaria 80, 115, 349 male fern 44f. malignant cell 279 manganese 241 mangiferin 331 a-mangostin 137ff., 184, 224 ß-mangostin 142ff. mannose specific lectin 318ff., 329f. Mao-to 333 MAP 318ff., 329ff., 352 Marrubium vulgare 130 mass spectrometry (MS) 6, 12, 67ff. mast cell degranulation 351 MDR (multi-drug resistance/multi-drug resistant) 1, 173, 294f.

- bacteria 17, 173

- fungi 17

- inhibitor 181

- inhibitor pump 173

- pump 180, 200, 225 -tuberculosis 212, 294f. Measles virus 317, 326 ff. mecA gene 175, 211 medicinal food 62 medicinal herb, see herb medicinal plant, see plant mediculture 73 Melaleuca alternifolia 17, 212 meliacine 317 ff., 329 Melissa officinalis 17 menstruum 29

Mentha

- piperita 255

- longifolia 224 Mesona procumbens 276ff. metabolic activation 278ff.

metabolite

- secondary 297ff. Meth A tumor cell 89ff methanol extract 297ff methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

- chronic MRSA osteomyelitis 166

- intensifiers of p-lactam-susceptibility in MRSA (ILSMR) 224

methyl allyl sulfide 82 methyl methanesulfonate 273 4-O-methylglucuronylarabinoxylan 344 michellamine 322ff. microbial agent 14 microbial contaminant 35 microdilution 105 micrometabolite 13 micronucleus assay 278ff. microplate method 113 microplate serial dilution 104 microscopic evaluation 34 microsomal cyclooxygenase activity 345 Microsporum spp. 166 milk thistle 44, 237 Mimosaceae 256

minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 106, 126, 142, 159, 180ff., 249, 296ff., 307f., 362

minimum lethal concentration (MLC) 168, 249

minocycline 137ff. misletoe 44f.

modern phytomedicine 61, 74 modification of target 200 mold 358

molluscicidal activity 131 monoterpenoid 280 Monotes glaber 280 Moraceae 255 morin 275ff. Moroccan plant 123ff moronic acid 318 morphine 314, 328 morin 317ff. MRK 29 318ff., 330 MRSA, see methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus MS, see mass spectrometry MSSA (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) 141 MTT (methylthiazoldiphenyltetrazolium) 164

mulberroside C 317ff multi-drug resistant, see MDR multi drug treatment 294 multivesicular liposome (MVL) 361 mupirocin 184 Muscari racemosum 276ff. mushroom 87f, 273, 286 mutagenicity 271ff mutation 174 MutaTM mouse 284 mycetes 200 Mycobacteriaceae 294 mycobacterial infection 293ff. Mycobacterium 97, 176, 200, 212, 293ff., 306ff.

- avium 294ff.

- leprae 294

- tuberculosis 173ff., 212, 293ff., 304ff.

- rapidly growing 298ff. mycotoxin 284ff. Myrciaria tenella 279 Myricaceae 263 myricetin 282, 321ff. myricitrin 263 Myristiaceae 254 Myrtaceae 252ff. Myrtilli extractum 280

n naphthoquinone 341

National Cancer Institute (NCI) 178

natriuresis 129

natural killer (NK) cell 91

natural product 178, 295ff., 308f.

naturopathy 61

neem 316

Neisseria gonorrhoeae 175 Neo-Western herbalism 61 nephrolithiasis 21 Nerium

- indicum 70

- oleander 130 neuraminidase 329

neutron activation analysis (NAA) 35 neutrophil 345

new chemical entities (NCE) 62

NFkB 321

nickel 241

Nigella sativa 130

niruriside 318

nitric oxide synthase 240

nitrofurantoin 224

nitrosamine 284

nonmutagenicity 280

nonrandomized trial 333

NorA 224f.

norfloxacin 225

nosocomial infection 138

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 38, 302

nutraceuticals 59f o obligate parasite 315 Ocimum gratissimum 224, 274 odor 84, 95 oil

- castor 256

- cedar wood 314

- cinnamon oil 358f.

- clove oil 358f.

- volatile 40, 94, 344 Olea europea 130 oleanolic acid 318ff oligolamellar vesicle (OLV) 361 oligophenol 318ff Onagraceae 256

onion 82 opioid system 257

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 129 oral rehydration therapy (ORT) 248 oregano oil 211, 358f. organ specificity 14 organophosphate compound 87 Origanum

- compactum 131

- vulgare 211, 359 Oroxylum indicum 276ff. outer membrane 18 ovatodiolide 328

over-pressured layer chromatography (OPLC) 38

overdosage 43 oxyresveratrol 325

p-24 330ff.

p21cip1waf1 351 p27kip1 351 Palmae 252 Panax ginseng 62 Papaver somniferum 70 papaia 225 papillary necrosis 21 Parainfluenza virus 317ff. parasite

- intracellular 168

- obligate 315 parasitic disease 349 parasitic infection 97ff. Passifloraceae 260 patentation 47 pathogen

- opportunistic 97 pathogenic bacteria 82 pathogenicity 175ff Peganum harmala 130 penicillin 177

penicillin binding protein (PBP) 175 penicillinase 177, 223 Pénicillium

- jensi 36

- nigricans 36 pentoxifylline (Trental) 86 pepper 256 peppermint 255

peripheral lymph node (PLN) 350 permeability barrier 18 pesticide 14ff., 36, 75 phagocytic activity 93 phagocytic cell 327 phagocytosis 345 pharmaceuticals 68 pharmacodynamic interaction 42 pharmacokinetic interaction 42 pharmacokinetics 67ff., 179 pharmacopeia 69

- standard 46 pharmacopeial definition 31 phenol 178, 316

phenolic acid 94, 273 pheophorbide A 225 phorbol ester 299, 319 photoequivalence 38 photometric analysis 31 Phyllanthus 320, 333f.

- Phyllanthus orbicularis 276jf. phytoalexin 137ff., 180

- isolation 141 phytoanticipin 180 phytoantimutagen 272ff., 286 phytochemical analysis 260 f. phytochemical mixture 62 phytochemical screening 25 phytocompound, see also plant 17, 173,

- adverse effect 352

- analyzing 12

- bioactive 1ff., 12ff., 17ff., 72, 79ff., 177, 179f., 271f., 288

- classification 342

- general property 342

- immunomodulatory effect 341ff.

- interaction with macromolecule 18

- mode of action 18

- side effect 352

- toxicity 18

- traditionally used in Japan 79ff. phytoestrogen 272 phytoglycogen 92f. phytomedicine 314ff., 331ff phytoncide 137ff.

- isolation 141 phytopharmaceutics 61 phytophore 316 phytoscience 1ff. phytotherapy 28, 61 picornavirus 319ff., 330 Piper

- betle 274

- nigram 274 piperine 256, 276ff. placebo 333

plant, see also phytocompound or phytomedicine

- activity 199ff.

- aromatic 64

- biochemical activity 15

- compound 297ff.

- disease 31

- drug resistance 223

- drying 7

- extract 64, 97ff., 104, 117, 173ff., 199ff., 293ff.

- flavor 84

- identification 74

- medicinal 61, 75, 99, 173ff., 271ff., 293ff., 304ff.

- physiological activity 15

- selection 100f.

- Southern Africa 98

- total activity 108

- traditional 247ff. plaque formation 329 plasmid 190

- curing 191

- transfer 190 Plasmodium 168 platelet 85

- antiaggregant activity 131

PLE (pressurized liquid extraction) 10

Pleurotus ostreatus Quel 90 plumbagin 179ff., 226 Plumbago zeylanica 179ff., 223ff Pokeweed antiviral protein 334 polarity 103

- extracting solvent 32 policy 47

poliovirus 316ff., 330 pollution (air, soil, water) 15 polyacetylene 349f. polyene 212

polyherbal formulation 238ff. polymer 13 polymyxin B 223 polypeptide 318ff., 329ff. polyphenol 117, 313ff.

- group 139

polyphenolic compound 262 polysaccharide 273, 313ff., 330

- sulfated 322 pomegranate 259 porphyrin 225 post-harvest processing 14 poxvirus 316 pregnancy 43

primary health care 74 proanthocyanidine 321ff. prolongation of blood coagulation 79ff. 2-propenesulfenic acid 82 propolis 212, 272f., 330 prostate hyperplasia 34 prostratin 319 protease 321

- inhibitor 331

protein kinase C (PKC) 350 Proteus mirabilis 363 provir 332 proviral DNA 320

provisional tolerable weekly intake values

(PTWI) 35 prunellin 322 Pseudomonas 173

- P. aeruginosa 18, 36, 82, 174, 187ff., 211 pseudorabies virus 317ff

Psidium guajava 258 psoriasis 352 pulegone 317ff. Pulicaria odora 127 pulmonary anthrax 83 Punica granatum 259 Punicaceae 252 purity 31 pyrazinamide 294 pyridine alkaloid 329

pyrogallol 322 Pyrola chlorantha 280 pyrrolizidine 44, 344

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