Antiinflammatory effects

Chronic inflammation is a pathophysiological condition of the body associated with various disorders such as arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, and cardio vascular disease. Scientists are in search of natural anti-inflammatory agents and phlorotannins have also getting much attention due to the shown promising anti-inflammatory potential. Ryu et al. (2009) have shown anti-inflammatory effects of dieckol and 1-(3',5'-dihydroxyphenoxy)-7-(2",4",6-trihydroxyphenoxy)-2,4,9-trihydroxybenzo-1,4-dioxin as therapeutics to treat arthritis. Both phlorotannins have suppressed the unregulated expression of cyclooxy-genase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), MMP 1,3,13 in activated human osteosarcoma cells (MG63). Phloroglucinol, the monomer unit, has also exerted significant anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor a, Interleukin 1 p, interleu-kin 6, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2) in lipopolysaccharide-stimu-lated RAW264.7 cells (Kim and Kim, 2010). Overactivation of microglial cells is leading to chronic neurodegenerative diseases due to expression of neurotoxic inflammatory mediators. Dieckol isolated from E. cava has shown potent inhibitory activity on these inflammatory mediators and their respective downstream enzymes (cytokines, iNOS, COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide activated microglial cells (BV-2) (Jung et al., 2009). Interestingly, in all these findings, the signaling mechanism of phlorotan-nin-mediated anti-inflammatory effect was found to be through deactiva-tion of NF-kB, the transcription factor regulated the inflammatory gene expression.

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