Introduction Of Medicinal Foods

Bone is made up of seven hierarchical structures and consists of hydroxy-apatite and collagen as major constituents (Venkatesan and Kim, 2010a,b Venkatesan et al., 2011a,b Weiner and Wagner, 1998). Defects in bone can occur due to many reasons such as motor accident, birth defect, osteoporosis, arthritis, bone gangrene, and low calcium level. Among this, osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases that occur due to imbalance of bone formation and bone resorption. Osteoporosis disease...

Antiinflammatory effects

Chronic inflammation is a pathophysiological condition of the body associated with various disorders such as arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, and cardio vascular disease. Scientists are in search of natural anti-inflammatory agents and phlorotannins have also getting much attention due to the shown promising anti-inflammatory potential. Ryu et al. (2009) have shown anti-inflammatory effects of dieckol and as therapeutics to treat arthritis. Both phlorotannins have...

Antiinflammatory activity

The inflammatory process involves a series of events that can be elicited by numerous internal or external stimuli. Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. Macrophages are key players in inflammation (Kazlowska et al., 2010). Potent effect of the fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharide from E. cava on anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was successfully investigated (Kang et al., 2011). According to their...

Osteoblast differentiation

Marine collagen peptides (MCP) derived from Chum Salmon (Oncor-hynchus keta) skin were investigated for the development of femurs in growing rats of both sexes (Xu et al., 2010). The modification of chromatin structure thereby regulating gene transcription through histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays important roles in osteogenesis and is considered to be a promising potential therapeutic target for bone diseases. Largazole (Fig. 32.1A) exhibited in vitro and in vivo osteogenic activity by HDAC...

Antiosteoporosis activity

Osteoporosis is a skeletal condition characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) (mass volume unit) that leads to an increased risk of fractures (Beikler and Flemmig, 2003). A number of studies have identified that osteoporosis occurs much more frequently in females compared to males (Cadarette et al., 2000 Hannan et al., 2000 Schuit et al., 2004). There are a number of reasons for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in females. First, at skeletal maturity, males have 30-50 bone mass...

Osteoclast differentiation in osteoporosis

An inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation and or function is expected to be useful for treatment of bone lytic diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and tumor metastasis into bone. Paenol inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting ERK, p38, and NF-kB pathway (Tsai et al., 2008). Symbioimine (Fig. 32.2A) from the symbiotic marine dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. exhibits inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation (Kita et al., 2004). Biselyngbyaside (Fig. 32.2B)...

Camineralization via osteoblastic differentiation

Chemical Structure Fucoidan

Calcium level contributes to be crucial in the strengthening of bone and bone homeostasis. Investigations to find out natural products that promote Ca-mineralization are interesting nowadays. Marine algae have displayed a promising natural resource for this strategy, for example, unicellular coccolithophorid algae produce elaborate calcified scales called coccolith, which consist of fine pieces of CaCO3 (calcite) crystals, known as one of the representative biominerals. A novel polysaccharide...

References

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