Use This Guide To Assist You In Pronunciation

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IF IT IS AN

AND

THEN IT IS

UNMARKED VOWEL

IT ENDS A SYLLABLE

LONG "a" (UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED)

THE SYLLABLE ENDS IN A CONSONANT

SHORT "a" (UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED)

In this course, stems are presented with the combining vowel and in their combining forms (stem + combining vowel = combining form) and referred to simply as the stem.

Although Latin combining forms (stem + combining vowel) should be used only with Latin prefixes and suffixes and Greek combining forms with Greek pre-fixes and suffixes, there are generally many inconsistencies in forming medical terms.

The combining forms presented in this text are legitimate; however, you will not find all the combining forms used in this text in any one medical dictionary. The combining form of the stem, tendo, for example does not appear in some dictionaries and appears in different forms in other medical dictionaries as follows:

Stedman's Medical Dictionary - tendo-. Combining form meaning tendon; see also teno-. Teno-, tenon-, tenonto-. Combining forms meaning tendon. See also tendo-.

Blakinton's Gould Medical Dictionary - ten-, teno-. A combining form meaning tendon.

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary - teno-, tenonto-. Combining form denoting relationship to a tendon.

Several sources were used as references in compiling the information included in this text including the following:

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Blakinton's Gould Medical Dictionary. Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary.

Section III. STEMS - PERTAINING TO THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

Now let's look at some of the more common stems pertaining to the musculoskeletal system.

29. The musculoskeletal system includes the bones, muscles, and joints.

30. Osteo is a stem which means bone. A person who has osteo-arthritis, for example, has inflammation of the _and joint.

os"te-o-ar-thri'-tis

bone

31. The stem, arthro, means joint. Arthrodesis means fixation of a _by fusion.

ar"thro-de'-sis

32. The stem chondro means cartilage. A person with chondr-itis, for example, has inflammation of the kon-dri'tis

ARTHRODESIS

joint

CHONDRITIS

cartilage

33. The stem myelo means bone marrow or spine. A person who has myelitis has an inflammation of the_

mi"e-li'tis

34. Myo is a stem which means muscle. A myospasm, for example, is an involuntary contraction of a mi'o-spazm

35. Tendo is a stem which means tendon. A person with tend-initis has inflammation of a .

ten"di-ni'tis

36. Costo is a stem which means rib. The intercostal space, for example, refers to the space between the in"ter-kos'tal

MYOSPASM

muscle

tendon

ribs

37. As a review, give the meaning of each of the following stems pertaining to the musculoskeletal system.

bone (frame 30)

joint (frame 31)

cartilage (frame 32)

bone marrow/spine (frame 33)

muscle (frame 34)

tendon (frame 35)

rib (frame 36)

38. To further reinforce what you have learned, fill in the blanks with the appropriate words:

a. A person who has osteoar-thritis has inflammation of the_and_.

bone/joint (frames 30 & 31)

b. Arthrodesis is fixation of a _by fusion.

joint (frame 31)

c. A person with chondritis has inflammation of the_.

cartilage (frame 32)

d. A person who has myelitis has inflammation of the__

bone marrow/spine (frame 33)

e. A myospasm is an involuntary contraction of a_.

muscle (frame 34)

f. A person with tendinitis has an inflammation of a_.

tendon (frame 35)

g. Intercostal refers to the space between the_.

ribs (frame 36)

If you missed any of the questions in frames 37 and 38, please review the appropriate frame(s) before continuing to frame 39.

Section IV. STEMS - PERTAINING TO THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

The integumentary system includes the skin and its appendages - the hair and nails.

39. Derma is a stem which means skin. DERMA

A person with dermatophytosis, for example, has a fungus condition of the .

der"mah-to-fi-to'sis

skin

40. Onycho is a stem which means nail. Onychectomy means surgical removal of the_of a finger or toe.

skin

on"i-kek'to-me nail

41. Let's review the stems you've just studied. Give the meaning of each of the following stems pertaining to the integumentary system:

nail a. Derma:

skin (frame 39)

****************************************** b. Onycho: _

nail (frame 40)

42. Let's make sure you know the stems you have just studied. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms.

a. A person with dermatophytosis has a fungus condition of the skin (frame 39)

b. Onychectomy is the surgical removal of the_of a finger or toe.

nail (frame 40)

If you missed any of the questions in frames 41 and 42, please review the appropriate frame(s) before continuing to frame 43.

Section V. STEMS - PERTAINING TO THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Shoulder Range Motion Rom

The respiratory system includes the lungs, pleura, bronchi, pharynx, larynx, tonsils, and the nose.

43. Rhino and naso are stems which mean nose. A person who has rhinitis has inflammation of the ri-ni'tis

nose

44. Laryngo is a stem meaning larynx or voice box. A laryngoscopy is an examination of the interior of the lar"ing-gos'ko-pe nose

larynx

45. Tracheo is a stem which means upper windpipe or trachea. A person with tracheitis has an inflammation of the or tra"ke-i'tis larynx

upper windpipe/trachea

46. Broncho is a stem which means lower windpipe or bronchus. A person with bronchitis has inflammation of the_

brong-ki'tis

lower windpipe/bronchus

47. Pulmo and pneumo are stems which mean lung. Pulmonary, for example, means concerning or involving the pul'mo-ner"e lower windpipe/bronchus

lungs

48. A person with pneumonia has an inflammation of the .

nu-mo'ne-ah lungs

lungs

49. Pneumo is a stem which also means air. Pneumonemia is the presence of _or gas in the blood vessel.

nu"mo-ne'me-ah

50. Pneo is a stem which means breath or breathing. Pneodynamics is the mechanism of .

ne'o-di nam'ik

51. Let's review the stems you just studied. Give the meaning of each of the following stems pertaining to the respiratory system.

****************************************** b. Naso:

****************************************** c. Laryngo: _

****************************************** f. Pulmo:

breathing

nose (frame 43)

nose (frame 43)

larynx (frame 44)

upper windpipe/trachea (frame 45)

lower windpipe/bronchus (frame 46)

lung (frame 47)

g. Pneumo:

or air/lungs (frame 47/49)

****************************************** h. Pneo: _

breathing (frame 50)

52. To further reinforce what you have learned, fill in the blanks with the appropriate terms:

a. A person who has rhinitis has an inflammation of the_.

nose (frame 43)

b. A laryngoscope is an instrument used for examination of the larynx (frame 44)

c. Tracheitis is the inflammation of the__or_.

upper windpipe/trachea (frame 45)

d. A child who has bronchitis has an inflammation of the_

lower windpipe/bronchus (frame 46)

e. The pulmonary artery leads to the lungs (frame 47)

f. A person with pneumonia has an inflammation of the_.

lungs (frame 48)

g. Pneumonemia is the presence of

_or gas in the blood vessels.

air (frame 49)

h. Pneodynamics is the mechanism of_.

breathing (frame 50)

If you missed any of the questions in frames 51 and 52, please review the appropriate frame(s) before continuing to frame 53.

Section VI: STEMS - PERTAINING TO THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system or gastrointestinal tract begins with the mouth, where food enters the body and ends with the anus, where solid waste material leaves the body.

53. The stem stoma means mouth. A person who has stomatitis, for example, has inflammation of the sto-mah-ti'tis

mouth

54. Lingua and glossa are stems which mean tongue. Glossitis means inflammation of the .

glos-si'tis

****************************************** 55. Lingual means pertaining to the

LINGUAL/GLOSSITIS

tongue ling'gwal

tongue

tongue

56. Dento and odonto are stems which mean tooth. A person with dentalgia has a pain in the_.

den-tal'je-ah

57. Cheilo is a stem which means lip. A cheiloplasty is the surgical repair of a defect of the_.

ki'lo-plas"te

58. Gingivo is a stem which means gums A person with gingivitis has an inflammation of the_.

jin"ji-vi'tis

59. Gastro is a stem which means stomach. A gastrectomy is the surgical removal of the_.

gas-trek-to-me

DENTO / ODONTO

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