References

Kantarjian H, Beran M, Cortes J, et al. Long-term follow-up results of the combination of topotecan and cytarabine and other intensive chemotherapy regimens in myelodys-plastic syndrome. Cancer 106(5) 1099-1109, 2006. 2. Herman JG, Baylin SB Gene silencing in cancer in association with promoter hypermethylation. N Engl J Med 349(21) 2042-2054, 2003. 3. Saiki JH, McCredie KB, Vietti TJ, et al. 5-azacytidine in acute leukemia. Cancer 42(5) 2111-2114, 1978. 4. Silverman LR, Demakos EP, Peterson...

Laboratory

Hematologic laboratory findings demonstrate peripheral blood cytopenias in one or more cell lines associated with dysmorphic features. These reflect dysmatura-tion of one or one or more of the cell lines and are detailed in Table 39.1. These maturational defects may be identified not only in the lines with diminished production but may also be seen in the lines where bone marrow production is still conserved. The bone marrow is most often hypercellular and features morphologic abnormalities...

Autoimmunity

The association of autoimmune disease and CLL is well known but misunderstood. There is no general tendency for patients with CLL to develop autoimmune disease. The only autoimmune conditions seen in CLL with any frequency are autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). A few other rare conditions occur in CLL more commonly than would be expected, but the common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Table 27.2 Paraneoplastic complications of CLL Autoimmune...

Selected alkylating agents

Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a nitrogen-mustard derivative that possesses a broad spectrum of activity. Its clinical usefulness is widespread, and it remains a key component of treatment regimens for a variety of malignancies, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and acute lymphocytic leukemia.5 Additionally, the immunosuppressive properties of cyclophos-phamide have been found to be effective in the treatment of various nonmalignant conditions, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, rheumatoid...

Disease Associations

Several hematological and non-hematological condi tions have been associated with monoclonal gam- mopathies. Many of these conditions are likely to occur with increased frequency in this older patient group, making it difficult to identify true associations. Various lymphoproliferative disorders have been described in the context of monoclonal gam-mopathies. In a long-term study of 430 patients with a monoclonal IgM in the serum, Kyle et al. found 28 patients (7 ) with lymphoma, 21 (5 ) with...

Xle Disease In Blood

Brady K, Corash L, Bhargava V Multiple myeloma arising from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in a patient with Gaucher's disease. Arch Pathol Lab Med 121 1108-1111, 1997. 40. Shoenfeld Y, Gallant LA, Shaklai M, Livni E, Djaldetti M, Pinkhas J Gaucher's disease a disease with chronic stimulation of the immune system. Arch Pathol Lab Med 106 388-391, 1982. 41. Brautbar A, Elstein D, Pines G, Abrahamov A, Zimran A Effect of enzyme replacement therapy on gammopathies in...