Rheumatic complaints are common in patients with HIV, and HIV pos-itivity confers an increased susceptibility in populations with similar risk factors for HIV infection. With the advent of the modern combined antiretroviral treatment, HAART has had a profound beneficial effect on survival in HIV-infected patients, with lifelong control of HIV infection and normalization of life expectancy; but it has also contributed to both an altered frequency and a different nature of rheumatic complications now being observed in this population, with new rheumatic complications, such as osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, gout, mycobacterial, mycotic osteoar-ticular infections, and neoplasia perhaps more prevalent. Rheumatologists, internists, and general physicians need to be aware of these changes to provide optimal diagnosis and how to disclose the results to their patients. They also need to be familiar with the management of HIV infection and to direct careful attention to the prevention of HIV transmission in health care facilities.
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