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Abel, G., Zhang, Q.X., Agnello, V. 1993. Hepatitis C virus infection in type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (review). Arthritis Rheum. 36, 1341.

Excellent review on mixed cryoglobulinemia and its relationship with HCV infection.

Abrignani, S., Rosa, D. 1998. Perspectives for a hepatitis C virus vaccine. Clin. Diagn. Virol. 10, 181.

Agnello, V. 1997. Hepatitis C virus infection and type II cryoglobulinemia: an immunological perspective. Hepatology 26, 1375.

Agnello, V., Abel, G. 1997. Localization of hepatitis C virus in cutaneous vasculitic lesions in patients with type II cry-oglobulinemia. Arthritis Rheum. 40, 2007. Nice study on the possible direct involvement of HCV in cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

Antonelli, A., Ferri, C., Fallahi, P. 1999. Thyroid cancer in patients with hepatitis C infection. JAMA 281, 1588. First report on the possible role of HCV in thyroid cancer.

Antonelli, A., Ferri, C., Fallahi, P., et al. 2004. Type 2 diabetes in hepatitis C-related mixed cryoglobulinaemia patients. Rheumatology (Oxford) 43, 238.

Important study on the possible role of HCV in type 2 diabetes.

Bombardieri, S., Ferri, C., Di Munno, O., et al. 1979. Liver involvement in essential mixed cryoglobulinemia. La Ricerca Clin. Lab. 9, 361.

Brouet, J.C., Clouvel, J.P., Danon, F., et al. 1974. Biologic and clinical significance of cryoglobulins. Am. J. Med. 57, 775.

Choo, G.L., Kuo, G., Weiner, A.J., et al. 1989. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244, 359. Dammacco, F., Sansonno, D., Piccoli, C., et al. 2001. The cryoglobulins: an overview. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 31, 628. Exhaustive review on mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome. De Vita, S., De Re, V., Gasparotto, D., et al. 2000. Type II mixed cryoglobulinemia is a non-malignant B-cell disorder. Clinical and molecular findings do not support bone marrow pathologic diagnosis of low grade B-cell lymphoma. Arthritis Rheum. 43, 94.

Excellent review of the biological bases and relationship between autoimmune-rheumatic disorders and limphopro-liferation.

Fadda, P., La Civita, P., Zignego, A.L., et al. 2002. Hepatitis C virus infection and arthritis. A clinico-serological investigation of arthritis in patients with or without cryoglobulinemic syndrome. Reumatismo. 54, 316. Ferri, C., Bertozzi, M.A., Zignego, A.L. 2002a. Erectile dysfunction and HCV infection. JAMA 14, 698. First report on the possible role of HCV in gonadal dysfunction.

Ferri, C., Zignego, A.L., Pileri, S.A. 2002b. Cryoglobulins. J. Clin. Pathol. 55, 4.

Comprehensive review of mixed cryoglobulinemia and its relationship with other autoimmune and lymphoprolifera-tive disorders.

Ferri, C., Giuggioli, D., Cazzato, M., et al. 2003. HCV-related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: an update on its etiopathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 21 (Suppl. 32), S78.

Update on the therapeutic strategies in cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

Ferri, C., Greco, F., Longobardo, G., et al. 1991. Association between hepatitis C virus and mixed cryoglobulinaemia. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 9, 621.

First report on the high prevalence of HCV viremia in a large series of mixed cryoglobulinemia patients. Ferri, C., La Civita, L., Cirafisi, C., et al. 1992. Peripheral neuropathy in mixed cryoglobulinemia: clinical and electro-physiologic investigations. J. Rheumatol. 19, 889. Ferri, C., La Civita, L., Fazzi, P., et al. 1997. Interstitial lung fibrosis and rheumatic disorders in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Br. J. Rheumatol. 36, 360. Ferri, C., La Civita, L., Longobardo, G., et al. 1993a. Hepatitis C virus and mixed cryoglobulinemia (review). Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 23, 399.

Ferri, C., La Civita, L., Zignego, A.L., et al. 1996. Hepatocellular carcinoma in mixed cryoglobulinemia patients. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 14, 111. Ferri, C., Longobardo, G., La Civita, L., et al. 1994. Hepatitis C virus as common cause of mixed cryo-globulinemia and chronic liver disease. J. Intern. Med. 236, 31.

Ferri, C., Mannini, L., Batoli, V., et al. 1990. Blood viscosity and filtration abnormalities in mixed cryoglobulinemia patients. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 8, 271.

Ferri, C., Monti, M., La Civita, L., et al. 1993b. Infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by hepatitis C virus in mixed cryoglobulinemia. Blood 82, 3701.

First suggestion of the possible involvement of HCV in malignant lymphomas.

Ferri, C., Pietrogrande, M., Cecchetti, C., et al. 1989. Low-antigen-content diet in the treatment of mixed cryo-globulinemia patients. Am. J. Med. 87, 519.

Ferri, C., Pileri, S., Zignego, A.L. 2000. Hepatitis C virus, B-cell disorders, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma chapter 19. In: J.J. Goedert (Ed.), Infectious Causes of Cancer. Targets for Intervention. National Cancer Institute (NIH). The Humana Press Inc. Totowa, New Jersey, p. 349. Important update on the possible role of HCV in the lymphomagenesis.

Ferri, C., Puccini, R., Longobardo, G., et al. 1993c. Low-antigen-content diet in the treatment of patients with IgA nephropathy. Nephrol. Dial. Transpl. 8, 1193.

Ferri, C., Sebastiani, M., Giuggioli, D., et al. 2004. Mixed cry-oglobulinemia: demographic, clinical, and serological features, and survival in 231 patients. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 33, 355. First prognostic and survival study on large series of patients with cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

Giannelli, F., Moscarella, S., Giannini, C., et al. 2003. Effect of antiviral treatment in patients with chronic HCV infection and t (14; 18) translocation. Blood 102, 1196. Excellent study on the possible therapeutic mechanism of antiviral treatment in cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

Giannini, C., Caini, P., Giannelli, F., et al. 2002. Hepatitis C virus core protein expression in human B-cell lines does not significantly modify main proliferative and apoptosis pathways. J. Gen. Virol. 83, 1665.

Gocke, D.J., Hsu, K., Morgan, C., et al. 1970. Association between polyarteritis and Australia antigen. Lancet 2, 1149.

Gorevic, P.D., Frangione, B. 1991. Mixed cryoglobulinemia cross-reactive idiotypes: implication for relationship of MC to rheumatic and lymphoproliferative diseases. Semin. Hematol. 28, 79.

Excellent review of mixed cryoglobulinemia and its relationship with B-cell lymphoproliferiferation.

Gorevic, P.D., Kassab, H.J., Levo, Y., et al. 1980. Mixed cryoglobulinemia: clinical aspects and long-term follow-up of 40 patients. Am. J. Med. 69, 287.

Gumber, S., Chopra, S. 1995. Hepatitis C: a multifaceted disease. Review of extrahepatic manifestations. Ann. Intern. Med. 123, 615.

Harris, N., Jaffe, E., Stein, H., et al. 1994. A revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms: a proposal from the international lymphoma study group. Blood 84, 1361.

Invernizzi, F., Galli, M., Serino, G., et al. 1983. Secondary and essential cryoglobulinemias. Frequency, nosological classification, and long-term follow-up. Acta Haematol. 70, 73.

Kallemuchikkal, U., Gorevic, P.D. 1999. Evaluation of cryoglobulins. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 123, 119.

Koike, K. 2002. Hepatocarcinogenesis in hepatitis viral infection: lessons from transgenic mouse studies. J. Gas-troenterol. 37 (Suppl. 13), 55.

Lamprecht, P., Gause, A., Gross, W.L. 1999. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (review). Arthritis Rheum. 42, 2507.

Lamprecht, P., Lerin-Lozano, C., Merz, H., et al. 2003. Rituxi-mab induces remission in refractory HCV associated cry-oglobulinaemic vasculitis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 62, 1230.

Lenzi, M., Johnson, P.J., McFarlane, I.G., et al. 1991. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus in autoimmune liver disease: evidence for geographical heterogeneity. Lancet 338, 277.

Levo, Y., Gorevic, P.D., Kassab, H.J., et al. 1977. Association between hepatitis B virus and essential mixed cry-oglobulinemia. N. Engl. J. Med. 296, 1501.

Lospalluto, J., Dorward, B., Miller, W., Jr., et al. 1962. Cry-oglobulinemia based on interaction between a gamma mac-roglobulin and 7S gamma globulin. Am. J. Med. 32, 142.

Lunel, F., Musset, L., Cacoub, P., et al. 1994. Cryo-globulinemia in chronic liver diseases: role of hepatitis C virus and liver damage. Gastroenterology 106, 1291.

Magalini, A.R., Facchetti, F., Salvi, L., et al. 1998. Clonality of B-cells in portal lymphoid infiltrates of HCV-infected livers. J. Pathol. 185, 86.

Mazzaro, C., Franzin, F., Tulissi, P., et al. 1996. Regression of monoclonal B-cell expansion in patients affected by mixed cryoglobulinemia responsive to a-interferon therapy. Cancer 77, 2604.

McHutchison, J.G., Gordon, S.C., Schiff, E.R., et al. 1998. Interferon alpha-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis Interven-tional Therapy Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 339, 1485.

Meltzer, M., Franklin, E.C., Elias, K., et al. 1966. Cryoglobulinemia. A clinical and laboratory study II. Cryo-globulins with rheumatoid factor activity. Am. J. Med. 40, 837.

Misiani, R., Bellavista, P., Baio, P., et al. 1999. Successful treatment of HCV-associated cryoglobulinaemic glomerulo-nephritis with a combination of interferon-alpha and rib-avirin. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 14, 1558.

Monteverde, A., Ballare, M., Pileri, S. 1997. Hepatic lymphoid aggregates in chronic hepatitis C and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Springer Semin. Immunopathology 19, 99. Important study on the pathological alterations underlying clinical manifestation of mixed cryoglobulinemia.

Monti, G., Galli, M., Invernizzi, F., et al. 1995. Cryo-globulinaemias: a multi-centre study of the early clinical and laboratory manifestations of primary and secondary disease. QJM 88, 115.

Relevant collaborative study on epidemiological and clinical features of largest mixed cryoglobulinemia series.

Olivieri, I., Palazzi, C., Padula, A. 2003. Hepatitis C virus and arthritis. Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 29, 111.

Pawlotsky, J., Mustapha, B., Andre, C., et al. 1994. Immuno-logical disorders in C virus chronic active hepatitis: a prospective case-control study. Hepatology 19, 841.

Pileri, P., Uematsu, Y., Campagnoli, S., et al. 1998. Binding of hepatitis C virus to CD81. Science 282, 938.

Excellent molecular biology study demonstrating the role of CD81 molecules in the binding of HCV to both hepatocytes and lymphocytes.

Ramos-Casals, M., Garcia-Carrasco, M., Cervera, R., et al. 2001. Hepatitis C virus infection mimicking primary Sjogren's syndrome. A clinical and immunologic description of 35 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 80, 1.

Ramos-Casals, M., Trejo, O., Garcia-Carraasco, M., et al. 2004. Triple association between hepatitic C virus infection, systemic autoimmune diseases, and B cell lymphoma. J. Rheumatol. 31, 495.

Salaffi, F., Manganelli, P., Carotti, M., et al. 1996. Mixed cry-oglobulinemia: effect of alpha-interferon on subclinical lymphocytes alveolitis. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. 14, 219.

Sansonno, D., De Re, V., Lauletta, G., et al. 2003. Monoclonal antibody treatment of mixed cryoglobulinemia resistant to interferon alpha with an anti-CD20. Blood 101, 3818. Important study on the possible therapeutic role of ri-tuximab in cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

Sansonno, D., De Vita, S., Cornacchiulo, V., et al. 1996. Detection and distribution of hepatitis C-related proteins in lymph nodes of patients with type II cryoglobulinemia and neoplastic or non-neoplastic lymphoproliferation. Blood 88, 4638. Original study on the possible direct involvement of HCV in lymphoproliferation.

Sansonno, D., Iacobelli, A.R., Cornacchiulo, V., et al. 1996. Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins by immuno-fluorescence and HCV RNA genomic sequences by non-isotopic in situ hybridization in bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of chronically HCV- infected patients. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 103, 414.

Tissot, J.D., Schifferli, J.A., Hochstrasser, D.F., et al. 1994. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of cryoglobulins and identification of an IgM-associated peptide. J. Immunol. Methods, 173, 63.

Trejo, O., Ramos-Casals, M., Lopez-Guillermo, A., et al. 2003. Haematologic malignancies in patients with cry-oglobulinemia: association with autoimmune and chronic viral diseases. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 33, 19.

Vitali, C., Bombardieri, S., Jonsson, R., et al. 2002. Classification criteria for Sjogren's syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 61, 554. Zaja, F., De Vita, S., Mazzaro, C., et al. 2003. Efficacy and safety of rituximab in type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. Blood 101, 3827.

Important study on the possible therapeutic role of ri-tuximab in cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Zignego, A.L., De Carli, M., Monti, M., et al. 1995. Hepatitis C virus infection of mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and liver infiltrates in chronically infected patients. J. Med. Virol. 47, 58.

Zignego, A.L., Ferri, C., Giannini, C., et al. 1996. Hepatitis C virus genotype analysis in patients with type II mixed cryo-globulinemia. Ann. Intern. Med. 124, 31. Zignego, A.L., Ferri, C., Giannini, C., et al. 1997. Hepatitis C virus infection in mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: evidence for a pathogenetic role. Arch. Virol. 142, 545. Zignego, A.L., Ferri, C., Giannelli, F., et al. 2002. Prevalence of bcl-2 rearrangement in patients with hepatitis C virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia with or without B-cell lymphomas. Ann. Intern. Med. 137, 571.

Excellent study suggesting the role of Bcl-2 in the HCV-related lymphomagenesis. Zignego, A.L., Giannelli, F., Marrocchi, M.E., et al. 2000. T (14; 18) translocation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepatology 31, 474. Zignego, A.L., Macchia, D., Monti, M., et al. 1992. Infection of peripheral mononuclear blood cells by hepatitis C virus. J. Hepatol. 15, 382.

First demonstration of HCV lymphotropism in HCV-related chronic hepatitis. Zuckerman, E., Keren, D., Slobodin, G., et al. 2000. Treatment of refractory, symptomatic, hepatitis C virus related mixed cryoglobulinemia with ribavirin and interferon-alpha. J. Rheumatol. 27, 2172.

Handbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Volume 5 The Skin in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Andrea Doria, Giampiero Girolomoni and Annegret Kuhn, editors

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