Cure Arthritis Naturally

Cure Arthritis Naturally

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CSS cutaneous lesions can be divided into 3 histologic categories: extravascular granulomas (50%), leukocytoclastic vasculitis (33%) and cutaneous 'polyarteritis nodosa' (17%).

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In this study, 14% of 244 WG patients had skin lesions, usually at presentation. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis was the most common cutaneous pathologic pattern. Cutaneous involvement appeared to be premonitory sign of renal disease.

Davies, D.J., Moran, J.E., Niall, J.F., et al. 1982. Segmental necrotising glomerulonephritis with antineutrophil antibody: possible arbovirus aetiology?. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.) 285, 606.

Davis, M.D., Daoud, M.S., McEvoy, M.T., et al. 1997. Cutaneous manifestations of Churg-Strauss syndrome: a clinicopathologic correlation. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 199.

Thirty-six (40%) of 90 CSS patients had cutaneous signs, as the initial manifestation in 5 of them. The most common clinical presentations were purpura and petechiae on lower extremities, and cutaneous nodules and papules on elbows. The most common histologic findings in skin biopsies (37 specimens) were extravascular necrotizing granuloma (15 specimens) and leukocytoclastic vasculitis (16 specimens).

D'Cruz, DP., Baguley, E., Asherson, R.A., et al. 1989. Ear, nose, and throat symptoms in subacute Wegener's granu-lomatosis. BMJ 299, 419.

de Groot, K., Reinhold-Keller, E., Tatsis, E., et al. 1996. Therapy for the maintenance of remission in sixty-five patients with generalized Wegener's granulomatosis. Methotrexate versus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Arthritis Rheum. 39, 2052.

de Groot, K., Gross, W.L., Herlyn, K., et al. 2001a. Development and validation of a disease extent index for Wegener's granulomatosis. Clin. Nephrol. 55, 31.

de Groot, K., Schmidt, D.K., Arlt, A.C., et al. 2001b. Standardized neurologic evaluations of 128 patients with We-gener's granulomatosis. Arch. Neurol. 58, 1215.

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Diaz-Perez, J.L., Winkelmann, R.K. 1974. Cutaneous per-iarteritis nodosa. Arch. Dermatol. 110, 407.

Dicken, C.H., Winkelmann, R.K. 1978. The Churg-Strauss granuloma: cutaneous, necrotizing, palisading granuloma in vasculitis syndromes. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 102, 576.

D'Izarn, J.J., Boulet, C.P., Convard, J.P., et al. 1976. Arteriography in polyarteritis nodosa. 15 cases [in French]. J. Radiol. Electrol. Med. Nucl. 57, 505.

Falk, R.J., Jennette, J.C. 1988. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies with specificity for myeloperoxidase in patients with systemic vasculitis and idiopathic necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis. New Engl. J. Med. 318, 1651.

Fauci, A.S., Haynes, B.F., Katz, P., et al. 1983. Wegener's granulomatosis: prospective clinical and therapeutic experience with 85 patients for 21 years. Ann. Intern. Med. 98, 76.

Finan, M.C., Winkelmann, R.K. 1983. The cutaneous extra-vascular necrotizing granuloma (Churg-Strauss granuloma) and systemic disease: a review of 27 cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 62, 142.

Fortin, P R., Larson, M.G., Watters, A.K., et al. 1995. Prognostic factors in systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the polyarteritis nodosa group-a review of 45 cases. J. Rheumatol. 22, 78.

Frances, C., Le Thi Huong, D., Piette, J.C., et al. 1994. Wegener's granulomatosis. Dermatological manifestations in 75 cases with clinicopathologic correlation. Arch. Dermatol. 130, 861.

In this study, 35 of 75 WG patients had skin and/or mucosa involvement, mainly palpable purpura (26 patients), oral ulcers (15), skin nodules (6), ulcers (5), necrotic papules (5), gingival hyperplasia (3), pustules (2), palpebral xanthoma

(2), genital ulcer (1), digital necrosis (1) or livedo reticularis (1). At histology, nongranulomatous vasculitis was associated with purpuric lesions, whereas granulomatous inflammation was associated with nonpurpuric lesions. Skin manifestations were associated with a higher frequency of articular and renal involvement (68% vs. 25%; 80% vs. 47%, respectively). These manifestations responded well to steroids and cyclophosphamide, in most of the cases.

Fries, J.F., Hunder, G.G., Bloch, D.A., et al. 1990. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of vasculitis. Summary. Arthritis Rheum. 33, 1135.

Frohnert, P., Sheps, S. 1967. Long term follow-up study of periarteritis nodosa. Am. J. Med. 43, 8.

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Girard, T., Mahr, A., Noel, L.H., et al. 2001. Are antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies a marker predictive of relapse in Wegener's granulomatosis? A prospective study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 40, 147.

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Guillevin, L., Fechner, J., Godeau, P., et al. 1985. Periarteritis nodosa: clinical and therapeutic study of 126 patients fol-lowed-up during 23 years [in French]. Ann. Med. Interne (Paris) 136, 6.

Guillevin, L., Jarrousse, B., Lok, C., et al. 1991. Long term follow-up after treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss angiitis with comparison of steroids, plasma exchange and cyclophosphamide to steroids and plasma exchange. A prospective randomized trial of 71 patients. The Cooperative Study Group for Polyarteritis Nodosa. J. Rheumatol. 18, 567.

Guillevin, L., Lhote, F., Jarrousse, B., et al. 1992a. Polyarteritis nodosa related to hepatitis B virus. A retrospective study of 66 patients. Ann. Med. Interne (Paris) 143 (Suppl. 1), 63.

Guillevin, L., Lhote, F., Jarrousse, B., et al. 1992b. Treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome. A meta-analysis of 3 prospective controlled trials including 182 patients over 12 years. Ann. Med. Interne (Paris) 143, 405.

Guillevin, L., Lhote, F., Brauner, M., et al. 1995a. Antineutro-phil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and abnormal angio-grams in polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome: indications for the diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis. Ann. Med. Interne (Paris) 146, 548.

Guillevin, L., Lhote, F., Cohen, P., et al. 1995b. Corticosteroids plus pulse cyclophosphamide and plasma exchanges versus corticosteroids plus pulse cyclophosphamide alone in the treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome patients with factors predicting poor prognosis. A

prospective, randomized trial in sixty-two patients. Arthritis Rheum. 38, 1638.

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Follow-up and multivariate outcome analysis of 260 patients with PAN and 82 with CSS showed that serum creatinine>1.58mg/dl, proteinuria (due to vascular or glomerular disease), GI tract involvement, specific cardio-myopathy and CNS involvement were independent prognostic factors. The five-factors score (FFS) considers these 5 parameters at initial assessment, and is a good predictor of death. Furthermore, FFS can be used to help the clinician choose the most adequate treatment.

Guillevin, L., Cordier, J.F., Lhote, F., et al. 1997. A prospective, multicenter, randomized trial comparing steroids and pulse cyclophosphamide versus steroids and oral cyclophosphamide in the treatment of generalized We-gener's granulomatosis. Arthritis Rheum. 40, 2187.

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Guillevin, L., Durand-Gasselin, B., Cevallos, R., et al. 1999b. Microscopic polyangiitis: clinical and laboratory findings in eighty-five patients. Arthritis Rheum. 42, 421.

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Hoffman, G.S. 1996. Immunosuppressive therapy is always required for the treatment of limited Wegener's gran-ulomatosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc. Diffuse Lung. Dis. 13, 249.

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Handbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Volume 5 The Skin in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Andrea Doria, Giampiero Girolomoni and Annegret Kuhn, editors

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Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis is a general term which is commonly associated with a number of painful conditions affecting the joints and bones. The term arthritis literally translates to joint inflammation.

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