And Immunologic Features of Lupus Erythematosus

Tables 3.5 and 3.6 describe the frequencies of the different clinical and immunologic features from a series of 1,000 patients with SLE derived from seven European countries ("Euro-Lupus cohort") (Cervera et al. 1993). Cutaneous and articular features are the most frequent organic manifestations, and they appear in most patients. Also, several potentially serious features, such as renal, serositic, neurologic, and hemato-logic manifestations, are relatively frequent. Malaise is the most frequent systemic feature, and it is present in nearly all patients. Antinuclear antibodies and anti-doubled-stranded DNA antibodies were the most common immunologic features. Similar prevalences have been described in other series from different European and American countries (Abu-Shakra et al. 1995a, Estes and Christian 1971, Font et al. 1991, Fries et al. 1974, Ginzler et al. 1982, Gripenberg and Helve 1991, Johnson and Nived 1990, Kellum and Haserike 1964, Nepom and Schaller 1984, Reveille et al. 1990, Rubin et al. 1985, Seleznick and Fries 1991, Ting and Hsieh 1992, Urowitz et al. 1976).

Table 3.5. Clinical manifestations in a series of 1,000 European patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (Cervera et al. 1993)

Clinical Manifestation

Prevalence (%)

Arthritis

84

Malar rash

58

Fever

52

Photosensitivity

45

Nephropathy

39

Serositis

36

Raynaud's phenomenon

34

Neurologic involvement

27

Oral ulcers

24

Thrombocytopenia

22

Sicca syndrome

16

Livedo reticularis

14

Thrombosis

14

Lymphadenopathy

12

Discoid lesions

10

Myositis

9

Hemolytic anemia

8

Lung involvement

7

Subacute cutaneous lesions

6

Chorea

2

Table 3.6. Immunologic features

in a series of 1,000 European patients with systemic lupus ery-

thematosus (Cervera et al. 1993)

Serologic Feature

Prevalence (%)

Antinuclear antibodies

96

Anti-DNA antibodies

78

Anti-Ro/SSA antibodies

25

Anti-La/SSB antibodies

19

Anti-RNP antibodies

13

Anti-Sm antibodies

10

Rheumatoid factor

18

IgG anticardiolipin antibodies

24

IgM anticardiolipin antibodies

13

Lupus anticoagulant

15

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