R

Radiography barium-infused cement for, 70

of bone defects. See under

Bone deficits/defects double patella on, 167f of femur fracture, 140f with flexion contracture, 59, 61-62

misleading results of, 59, 61-62 of offset stem, 183f of osteolysis, 180f of patellar tendon allograft, 167f of patellar tendon rupture, 160f postoperative cementless,

98f, 99f postoperative patellar, 26, 94f preoperative, 18, 26, 93f, 98f,

99f, 105, 179 of revision TKA, 114f,

179-180, 182 subsidence on, 182f "true lateral" views in, 118-119 Rand's classification of bone defects, 117 See also Bone deficits/defects Range of motion, 167, 185 Reamers/reaming, 6, 21, 95-96,

105, 165-166, 185 Rectus muscle, 39

Recurvatum, 112-113 Reference points/landmarks for bone defects, 119 epicondylar axis as, 33f, 37,

43-44, 54 for femoral alignment/rotation, 7-14, 110-111 for femur sizing, 5f fibular head as, 17 intramedullary canal/rods as,

11-12, 19-20 least-diseased, 86 patella as, 112 of tibial plateau, 54 Rehabilitation. See under specific procedures Reimplantation, staged, 150-152 outcomes of, 152 phases of, 150 spacer blocks for, 150-151 See also Revision total knee arthroplasty Releases, soft tissue

Coonse-Adams release, 159 history of, 1-3, 2t, 35 instruments for, 28-31 lateral, 41-54 medial, 25-39

over-release, 1, 2f, 36, 51, 54, 147t peroneal nerve palsy from,

50-51, 67 "piecrust" type of, 46, 48, 159

See also Balancing of knee joints; specific structures and deformities Revision total knee arthroplasty bone defects in. See Bone deficits/defects challenges in, 104-105, 115

constrained systems for,

133-147. See also specific system names complications in, 143,

145-147 history of, 133 illustrated, 135-141 implant designs of,

133-138 indications for, 138-141,

143, 145-147 outcomes of, 141-143, 144t with femur fracture. See Femur periprosthetic fracture revision multiple, 124, 143 pegs and stems for. See Pegs and stems preoperative radiography for,

179-180, 182 three-step technique for,

104-115

extension stabilization in,

106t, 112-113, 114f flexion stabilization in, 106t, 108-112, 114f soft tissue balance in, 113, 115

tibial platform establishment in,

105-108, 106t, 107f with tibial fracture. See

Tibial periprosthetic fracture revision Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cementless components, 81

and extension in TKA, 76 with flexion contracture, 62,

67-68 illustrated, 58f smooth central stems for, 82, 85

Robotic arms, 17

Rods. See Intramedullary rods

Rotation of epicondylar axis, 4, 8-13, 111

excessive, 35 external. See External rotation internal. See Internal rotation positioning for, 4 reference points for, 7-14, 110-111 rotational torque, 14 stability/instability in, 186 varus and valgus effects on, 10f, 11f See also specific components and procedures Rush rods, 170

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