Rheumatoid arthritis

Cure Arthritis Naturally

Cure Arthritis Naturally

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, affecting ~0.5-1% of the adult population, with three times more females than males effected. RA is associated with a persistent inflammatory polyarticular syn-ovitis mainly affecting the peripheral joints. In the early stages of the disease, proliferation and oedema of synovial lining cells occurs. The RA joint is characterised by the synovial tissue being infiltrated by a large number of mononuclear cells, recruited into the joint via the upregulation of chemokines and expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. RA is associated with increased angio-genesis [1]. The normally thin synovium becomes thicker resulting in a joint that is swollen, puffy to the touch and often tender. As the disease progresses, the syn-ovium invades the joint cartilage and bone to form an area known as the 'pan-nus' (Fig. 1). This structure is involved in the irreversible joint destruction through bone resorption and the breakdown of cartilage. The release of enzymes like metalloproteases, aggrecanases and cathepsins leads to the degradation of proteoglycans in the cartilage. The damage to the bone mediated by osteoclasts eventually leads to deformities and the possibility of tendon and ligaments becoming damaged. The resulting unstable inflamed joints cause pain and major disability for the patient (Fig. 2).

There is strong evidence for a key role of activated inflammatory cells in the initiation and progression of RA. Infiltrating, activated CD4+ T cells are thought to activate macrophages by cell-cell mediated contact to release cytokines and chemokines that in turn activate and recruit other inflammatory cells to the joint, creating a continuous cycle of inflammation (for a review see [2]). Activated CD4+ T cells also stimulate B cells to produce immunoglobulins, including rheumatoid factor (RF) which can be helpful in the diagnosis and prognosis of RA.

Toll-like Receptors in Inflammation, edited by Luke A.J. O'Neill and Elizabeth Brint © 2006 Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland

Figure 1

Diagram of a normal and rheumatoid arthritis joint

Left hand shows normal joint with intact cartilage and no bone damage. Right side shows thickened synovial membrane, cartilage thinning and pannus consisting of T lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, plasma cells and dendritic cells.

Figure 1

Diagram of a normal and rheumatoid arthritis joint

Left hand shows normal joint with intact cartilage and no bone damage. Right side shows thickened synovial membrane, cartilage thinning and pannus consisting of T lymphocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, plasma cells and dendritic cells.

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Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis With Herbs Spices Roots

Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis With Herbs Spices Roots

Did You Know That Herbs and Spices Have Been Used to Treat Rheumatoid Arthritis Successfully for Thousands of Years Do you suffer with rheumatoid arthritis Would you like to know which herbs and spices naturally reduce inflammation and pain 'Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis with Herbs, Spices and Roots' is a short report which shows you where to start.

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