Chromosomal location: 3q28 (h), 16 (m); exons: two; introns: one

Chromosomal location: 2pl3 (h); exons: six; introns: five

Chromosomal location: 3q28 (h), 16 (m); exons: two; introns: one

Chromosomal location: 2pl3 (h); exons: six; introns: five

Platelets, monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, mast cells, granulocytes, brain, hypothalamus, thymus, intestine

Epithelial cells, brain, mammary, platelets, placenta, macrophages, embryos, kidney, liver, pituitary cells, brain, keratinocytes, hepatocytes, gastric mucosal cells, Sertoli cells, psoriatic epidermis, tumor cells

Cholinergic differentiation factor, CNTF, NGF, IGF1, IL-1(3, IFN-y, IL-10, LPS, PGE, cAMP analog

VIP, substance P Lymphocytes, lymphoblast cell lines, B cells, monocytes, macrophages, hypothalamus

Estrogen, TGF-a, PMA, LPS, viruses, phorbol esters, ras oncogene

Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, neural, mammary, certain hyperplasias

Inhibits growth hormone and prolactin immune activities; inhibits proliferation of lymphoblastic cell lines; inhibits mitogen-induced T cell proliferation; inhibits IFN-y and CSF expression; inhibits IgE production; inhibits LPS-induced leukocytosis; inhibits GH-mediated monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis; inhibits superoxide release; inhibits secretion of growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, secretin, glucagon, insulin, VIP, cholecystokinin, and gastrin

Mitogenic, promotes angiogenesis, stimulates anchorage-independent tumor growth, uses EGF receptor

Inhibits inflammation, inhibits granuloma formation

Inhibits inflammation in diabetes, arthritis, and colitis models

Reduced pulmonary fibrosis in response to lung injury

Elevated levels seen in many breast cancers, psoriasis; anti-EGF receptor blocks TGF-a effects in animal models; promotes wound healing and angiogenesis; antagonists may prevent tumor growth and psoriasis


Alternative nomenclature

Protein characteristics

Genetic characteristics

Cellular expression

Up regulators of expression

Down regulators of expression

Target cells and/or tissues

Functional properties

Effect of expression analysis^

Clinical utility/animal models



Protein: 25 kDa


Platelets, epithelial



Epithelial cells,

Regulates proliferation and


Higher levels in many

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Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis With Herbs Spices Roots

Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis With Herbs Spices Roots

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