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Anti-CD3, TCR ligation, PMA, calcium ionophore, Con A, IL-2, IL-18, FcsRI cross-linking

Monocytes, macrophages, B cells, T cells, hematopoietic progenitors

Suppresses activation- and en do toxin-induced cytokine, chemokine, and tissue factor production by monocytes and macrophages; down-regulates macrophage activity; induces monocyte differentiation; induces B cell proliferation, differentiation, Ig production, and isotype switching; induces CD23/CD2 and class II expression on B cells; induces chemotaxis of T cells; enhances expression of IL-1RA; decrease nitric oxide production; suppresses the pyrogenic effects of IL-1 and or TNF-a; inhibits HIV-1 infectivity in human macrophages; increases LAK activity; has anti-tumor effects

Enhances proliferation of activated B cells/B cell subsets; inhibits immunoglobulin synthesis

Decreased IL-5 and IgE production; reduced eosinophil activity; increased IFN-y; decreased Th2 development; decreased nematode resistance

Higher levels associated with asthma; low levels occur with osteoarthritis; reduces endotoxin shock and arthritis in animal models; chimeric IL-13 and Pseudomonas exotoxin A results in cytotolysis of adenocarcinomas and gliomas; chimeric IL-13 and Pseudomonas exotoxin results in cytolysis of Kaposi's sarcomas; potential antitumor agent; antagonists may be used to block allergy and asthma

Potential use as adjuvant in combination with other biological response modifiers

Cytokine

Alternative nomenclature

Protein characteristics

Genetic characteristics

Cellular expression

Up regulators of expression

Down regulators of expression

Target cells and/or tissues

Functional properties

Effect of expression analysis^

Clinical utility/animal models

Interleukin-15; IL-T

Interleukin-16, lymphocyte chemoattractant factor (LCF)

Protein: 14-18

Chromosomal

Dendritic cells,

IFN-y, IL-1(3, TNF-

T cells, B cells,

Functions resemble IL-2;

Lymphopenia;

Elevated levels occur in

kDa (h,m);

location: 4q31 (h),

monocytes,

a, LPS, virus,

NK cells, LAK

increases proliferation and

reduced NK, NKT,

inflammation,

precursor: 162

8 (m); exons:

macrophages,

bacteria, UVB

cells, mast cells,

cytotoxicity of T and LAK

IEL and CD8+ T

rheumatoid arthritis,

aa (h,m);

seven;introns:

epithelial cells,

radiation

microglia,

cells; chemotactic factor for

cells

Crohn's disease, and

mature: 113 aa

nine

bone marrow

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Arthritis Relief and Prevention

Arthritis Relief and Prevention

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