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Steinman, R.M., Kaplan, G., Witmer, M.D., and Cohn, Z.A. 1979. Identification of a novel celltype in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. V. Purification of spleen dendritic cells, new surface markers, and maintenance in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 149:1-16. Szabolcs, P., Moore, M.A.S., and Young, J.W. 1995. Expansion of immunostimulatory dendritic cells among the myeloid progeny of human CD34+ bone marrow precursors cultured with C-kit li-gand, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and TNF-a. J. Immunol. 154:58515861.

Unkeless, J.C. 1979. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody directed against mouse macrophage and lymphocyte Fc receptors. J. Exp. Med. 150:580-596.

Vremec, D., Zorbas, M., Scollay, R., Saunders, D.J., Ardavin, C.F., Wu, L., and Shortman, K. 1992. The surface phenotype of dendritic cells purified from mouse thymus and spleen: Strong expression of CD8 by a subpopulation of dendritic cells suggests a veto function. J. Exp. Med. 176:47-58. Wong, T.W., Klinkert, W.E.F., and Bowers, W.E. 1982. Immunological properties of thymus cell subpopulations: rat dendritic cells are potent accessory cells and stimulators in a mixed leukocyte culture. Immunobiol. 160:413-423.

Zvaifler, N.J., Steinman, R.M., Kaplan, G., Lau, L.L., and Rivelis, M. 1985. Identification of im-munostimulatory dendritic cells in the synovial effusions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J. Clin. Invest. 76:789-800.

Key References

Agger et al., 1990. See above.

Reviews the antigenic phenotype of mouse dendritic cells.

Austyn, J.M. 1987. Lymphoid dendritic cells. Immunology 62:161-170.

General review of dendritic cell biology.

Banchereau, J. and Steinman, R.M. 1998. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity. Nature In press.

Most recent review on the physiology of dendritic cells.

Crowley et al., 1989. See above.

Provides an extensive flow-cytometric study of dendritic cells from spleen, thymus, and skin.

Schuler, G. 1991. Epidermal Langerhans Cells.

CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. Contains several articles on epidermal dendritic cells.

Steinman, R.M. 1991. The dendritic cell system and its role in immunogenicity. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 9:271-296.

Review of the dendritic cell system in mouse and man.

Steinman, R.M., Schuler, G., Romani, N., and Kaplan, G. 1987. Dendritic cells. In Atlas of Blood Cells: Function and Pathology (D. Zucker-Franklin, M.F. Greaves, C.E.Grossi, and A.M. Marmont, eds.) pp. 359-377. Lea & Fe-biger, Philadelphia. Cytologic study of dendritic cells in different organs and species.

Contributed by Kayo Inaba Kyoto University Kyoto, Japan

William J. Swiggard and Ralph M. Steinman The Rockefeller University New York, New York

Nikolaus Romani University of Innsbruck Innsbruck, Austria

Gerold Schuler University of Erlangen Erlangen, Germany

In Vitro Assays for Mouse Lymphocyte Function

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