References

Cure Arthritis Naturally

Beat Arthritis Naturally

Get Instant Access

Alexander, J.W. (1998) Immunonutrition: the role of w-3 fatty acids. Nutrition 14, 627-633.

Alexander, J.W., Saito, H., Trocki, O. and Ogle, C.K. (1986) The importance of lipid type in the diet after burn injury. Annals of Surgery 204, 1-8.

Arm, J.P, Horton, C.E., Mencia-Huerta, J.M., House, F, Eiser, N.M., Clarke, T.S.H., Spur, B.W. and Lee, T.H. (1988) Effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on mild asthma. Thorax 43, 84-92.

Arm, J.P, Horton, C.E., Spur, B.W., Mencia-Huerta, J.M. and Lee, T.H. (1989) The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on the airways response to inhaled allergen in bronchial asthma. American Review of Respiratory Disease 139, 1395-1400.

Badwey, J.A., Curnutte, J.T. and Karnovsky, M.L. (1981) Ci's-polyunsaturated fatty acids induce high levels of superoxide production by human neutrophils. Journal of Biological Chemistry 256, 12640-12643.

Badwey, J.A., Curnutte, J.T., Robinson, J.M., Berde, C.B., Karnovsky, M.J. and Karnovsky, M.L. (1984) Effects of free fatty acids on release of superoxide and on change of shape by human neutrophils. Journal of Biological Chemistry 259, 7870-7877.

Barone, J., Hebert, J.R. and Reddy, M.M. (1989) Dietary fat and natural killer cell activity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 861-867.

Barton, R.G., Wells, C.L., Carlson, A., Singh, R., Sullivan, J.J. and Cerra, FB. (1991) Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease mortality and Kupffer cell prostaglandin E2 production in a rat model of chronic sepsis. Journal of Trauma 31, 768-774.

Beale, R.J., Bryg, D.J. and Bihari, D.J. (1999) Immunonutrition in the critically ill: a systematic review of clinical outcome. Critical Care Medicine 27, 2799-2805.

Belluzzi, A. and Miglio, F (1998) n-3 Fatty acids in the treatment of Crohn's disease. In: Kremer, J. (ed.) Medicinal Fatty Acids in Inflammation. Birkhauser Verlag, Basle, pp. 91-101.

Berthou, L., Saladin, R., Yaqoob, P, Branellec, D., Calder, P, Fruchart, J.-C., Denefle, P, Auwerx, J. and Staels, B. (1995) Regulation of rat liver apolipoprotein A-I, apoli-porotein A-II and acyl CoA oxidase gene expression by fibrates and dietary fatty acids. European Journal of Biochemistry 232, 179-187.

Bialick, R., Gill, R., Berke, G. and Clark, W.R. (1984) Modulation of cell-mediated cyto-toxicity function after alteration of fatty acid composition in vitro. Journal of Immunology 132, 81-87.

Billiar, T., Bankey, P, Svingen, B., Curran, R.D., West, M.A., Holman, R.T., Simmons, R.L. and Cerra, FB. (1988) Fatty acid uptake and Kupffer cell function: fish oil alters eicosanoid and monokine production to endotoxin stimulation. Surgery 104, 343-349.

Blok, W.L., Katan, M.B. and van der Meer, J.W.M. (1996) Modulation of inflammation and cytokine production by dietary (n-3) fatty acids. Journal of Nutrition 126, 1515-1533.

Blok, W.L., Deslypere, J.-P, Demacker, PN.M., van der Ven-Jongekrijg, J., Hectors, M.PC., van der Meer, J.M.W. and Katan, M.B. (1997) Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in healthy volunteers fed various doses of fish oil for 1 year. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 27, 1003-1008.

Bofill, M., Akbar, A.N., Salmon, M., Robinson, M., Burford, G. and Janossy, G. (1994) Immature CD45RAlowROlow T cells in the human cord blood. 1. Antecedents of CD45RA+ unprimed T cells. Journal of Immunology 152, 5613-5623.

Braga, M., Vignali, A., Gianotti, L., Cestari, A., Profili, M. and Di Carlo, V (1996) Immune and nutritional effects of early enteral nutrition after major abdominal operations. European Journal of Surgery 162, 105-112.

Braga, M., Gianotti, L., Radaelli, G., Vignali, A., Mari, G., Gentilini, O. and Di Carlo, V. (1999) Perioperative immunonutrition in patients undergoing cancer surgery. Archives of Surgery 134, 428-433.

British Nutrition Foundation (1999) Briefing Paper on n-3 Fatty Acids and Health. British Nutrition Foundation, London.

Brouard, C. and Pascaud, M. (1990) Effects of moderate dietary supplementations with n-3 fatty acids on macrophage and lymphocyte phospholipids and macrophage eicosanoid synthesis in the rat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1047, 19-28.

Brouard, C. and Pascaud, M. (1993) Modulation of rat and human lymphocyte function by n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and acetylsalicylic acid. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 37, 146-159.

Broughton, K.S., Johnson, C.S., Pace, B.K., Liebman, M. and Kleppinger, K.M. (1997) Reduced asthma symptoms with n-3 fatty acid ingestion are related to 5-series leu-cotriene production. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 1011-1017.

Byleveld, PM., Pang, G.T., Clancy, R.L. and Roberts, D.C.K. (1999) Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-7 and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in lungs of mice. Journal of Nutrition 129, 328-335.

Calder, PC. (1996) Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 55, 737-774.

Calder, PC. (1997) N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 41, 203-234.

Calder, PC. (1998a) Dietary fatty acids and the immune system. Nutrition Reviews 56, S70-S83.

Calder, PC. (1998b) Dietary fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 487-502.

Calder, PC. (1998c) N-3 fatty acids and mononuclear phagocyte function. In: Kremer, J.M. (ed) Medicinal Fatty Acids in Inflammation. Birkhauser Verlag, Basle, pp. 1-27.

Calder, P.C. (2001a) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity. Lipids 36, 1007-1024.

Calder, P.C. (2001b) The effect of dietary fatty acids on the immune response and susceptibility to infection. In: Suskind, R.M. and Tontisirin, K. (eds) Nutrition, Immunity, and Infection in Infants and Children. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 137-172.

Calder, P.C. (2001c) N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: pouring oil on troubled waters or another fishy tale? Nutrition Research 21, 309-341.

Calder, PC. (2001d) N-3 Fatty acids and rheumatoid arthritis. In: Ransley, J.K., Donnelly, J.K. and Read, N.W. (eds) Food and Nutritional Supplements in Health and Disease. Springer Verlag, London, pp. 175-197.

Calder, P.C. and Miles, E.A. (2000) Fatty acids and atopic disease. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 11 (Suppl.), 29-36.

Calder, PC. and Zurier, R.B. (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and rheumatoid arthritis. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 4, 115-121.

Calder, PC., Bond, J.A., Harvey, D.J., Gordon, S. and Newsholme, E.A. (1990) Uptake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into macrophage lipids and their effect upon macrophage adhesion and phagocytosis. Biochemical Journal 269, 807-814.

Calder, PC., Bevan, S.J. and Newsholme, E.A. (1992) The inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation by fatty acids is via an eicosanoid-independent mechanism. Immunology 75, 108-115.

Calder, PC., Yaqoob, P, Harvey, D.J., Watts, A. and Newsholme, E.A. (1994) The incorporation of fatty acids by lymphocytes and the effect on fatty acid composition and membrane fluidity. Biochemical Journal 300, 509-518.

Calder, PC., Yaqoob, P, Thies, F, Wallace, FA. and Miles, E.A. (2002) Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. British Journal of Nutrition, 87, S31-S48.

Caughey, G.E., Mantzioris, E., Gibson, R.A., Cleland, L.G. and James, M.J. (1996) The effect on human tumor necrosis factor a and interleukin 1p production of diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids from vegetable oil or fish oil. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 116-122.

Cavadini, C., Siega-Riz, A.M. and Popkin, B.M. (2000) US adolescent food intake trends from 1965 to 1996. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 83, 18-24.

Cave, W.T. Jr (1991) Dietary n-3 (w-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid effects on animal tumorigenesis. FASEB Journal 5, 2160-2165.

Chandrasekar, B. and Fernandes, G. (1994) Decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased antioxidant enzyme gene expression by w-3 lipids in murine lupus nephritis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 200, 893-898.

Chinetti, G., Griglio, S., Antonucci, M., Torra, I.P, Delerive, P, Majd, Z., Fruchart, J.C., Chapman, J., Najib, J. and Staels, B. (1998) Activation of peroxisome-activated receptors alpha and gamma induces apoptosis of human monocyte-derived macrophages. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273, 25573-25580.

Chinetti, G., Fruchart, J.C. and Staels, B. (2000) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): nuclear receptors at the crossroads between lipid metabolism and inflammation. Inflammation Research 49, 497-505.

Cifone, M.G., Botti, D., Festuccia, C., Napolitano, T., del Grosso, E., Cavallo, G., Chessa, M.A. and Santoni, A. (1993) Involvement of phospholipase A2 activation and arachidonic acid metabolism in the cytotoxic functions of rat NK cells. Cellular Immunology 148, 247-258.

Clandinin, M.T., Cheema, S., Field, C.J., Garg, M.L., Venkatraman, J. and Clandinin, T.R. (1991) Dietary fat: exogenous determination of membrane structure and cell function. FASEB Journal 5, 2761-2769.

Clarke, S.D. and Jump, D.B. (1994) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of gene transcription. Annual Review in Nutrition 14, 83-98.

Cook, J.A., Wise, W.C., Knapp, D.R. and Haslishka, PV. (1981) Essential fatty acid deficient rats: a new model for evaluating arachidonate metabolism in shock. Advances in Shock Research 6, 93-105.

Cooper, A.L., Gibbons, L., Horan, M.A., Little, R.A. and Rothwell, N.J. (1993) Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on fever and cytokine production in human volunteers. Clinical Nutrition 12, 321-328.

Curtis, C.L., Hughes, C.E., Flannery, C.R., Little, C.B., Harwood, J.L. and Caterson, B. (2000) n-3 Fatty acids specifically modulate catabolic factors involved in articular cartilage degradation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275, 721-724.

de Caterina, R. and Libby, P (1996) Control of endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecules by fatty acids. Lipids 31, S57-S63.

Delerive, P, Fruchart, J.C. and Staels, B. (2001) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in inflammation control. Journal of Endocrinology 169, 453-459.

de Pablo, M.A. and Alvarezde Cienfuegos, G. (2000) Modulatory effects of dietary lipids on immune system functions. Immunology and Cell Biology 78, 31-39.

Department of Health (1994) Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease. Report of the Cardiovascular Review Group Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. HMSO, London.

Devchand, PR., Keller, H., Peters, J.M., Vazquez, M., Gonzalez, FJ. and Wahli, W. (1996) The PPARa-leucotriene B4 pathway to inflammation control. Nature 384, 39-43.

Dry, J. and Vincent, D. (1991) Effect of fish oil diet on asthma - results of a 1-year double-blind study. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 95, 156-157.

Endres, S., Ghorbani, R., Kelley, V.E., Georgilis, K., Lonnemann, G., van der Meer, J.M.W., Cannon, J.G., Rogers, T.S., Klempner, M.S., Weber, PC., Schaeffer, E.J., Wolff, S.M. and Dinarello, C.A. (1989) The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. New England Journal of Medicine 320, 265-271.

Endres, S., Meydani, S.N., Ghorbani, R., Schindler, R. and Dinarello, C.A. (1993) Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids suppresses interleukin-2 production and mononuclear cell proliferation. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 54, 599-603.

Ferber, E., De Pasquale, G.G. and Resch, K. (1975) Phospholipid metabolism of stimulated lymphocytes - composition of phospholipid fatty acids. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 398, 364-376.

Fernandes, G., Chandrasekar, B., Venkatraman, J., Tomar, V. and Zhao, W. (1994) Increased transforming growth factor beta and decreased oncogene expression by omega-3 fatty acids in the spleen delays the onset of autoimmune disease in BB/W mice. Journal of Immunology 152, 5979-5987.

Fernandes, G., Troyer, D.A. and Jolly, C.A. (1998) The effects of dietary lipids on gene expression and apoptosis. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 543-550.

Field, C.J., Thomson, C.A., Van Aerde, J.E., Parrot, A., Euler, A.R. and Clandinin, M.T. (2000) The lower proportion of CD45RO+ cells and deficient IL-10 production by formula-fed infants, as compared to human-fed infants, is corrected with supplmen-tation of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 31, 291-299.

Field, C.J., Clandinin, M.T. and van Aerde, J.E. (2001) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and T-cell function: implications for the neonate. Lipids 36, 1025-1032.

Fisher, M., Levine, PH., Weiner, B.H., Johnson, M.H., Doyle, E.M., Ellis, RA. and Hoogasian, J.J. (1990) Dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces superoxide production and chemiluminescence in a monocyte-enriched preparation of leucocytes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 804-808.

Fowler, K.H., McMurray, D.N., Fan, Y.Y., Aukema, H.M. and Chapkin, R.S. (1993) Purified dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter diacylglycerol mass and molecular species composition in concanavalin A-stimulated murine splenocytes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1210, 89-96.

Fujikawa, M., Yamashita, N., Yamazaki, K., Sugiyama, E., Suzuki, H. and Hamazaki, T. (1992) Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits antigen-presenting cell function of murine splenocytes. Immunology 75, 330-335.

Gallai, V., Sarchielli, P, Trequattrini, A., Franceschini, M., Floridi, A., Firenze, C., Alberti, A., Di Benedetto, D. and Stragliotto, E. (1993) Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Neuroimmunology 56, 143-153.

Geusens, PP (1998) n-3 Fatty acids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In: Kremer, J.M. (ed.) Medicinal Fatty Acids in Inflammation. Birkhauser Verlag, Basle, pp. 111-123.

Gianotti, L., Braga, M., Fortis, C., Soldini, L., Vignali, A., Colombo, S., Radaelli, G. and Di Carlo, V. (1999) A prospective, randomised clinical trial on perioperative feeding with an arginine-, omega-3 fatty acid-, and RNA-enriched enteral diet: effect on host response and nutritional status. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 23, 314-320.

Gibney, M.J. and Hunter, B. (1993) The effects of short- and long-term supplementation with fish oil on the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids into cells of the immune system in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 255-259.

Grimble, R.F (1998) Dietary lipids and the inflammatory response. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 535-542.

Grimble, R.F and Tappia, PIS. (1995) The modulatory influence of unsaturated fatty acid in the biology of tumour necrosis factor. Biochemical Society Transactions 287, 282-286.

Harbige, L.S. (1998) Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in immunity and autoimmune disease. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 555-562.

Hardy, S.J., Robinson, B.S., Poulos, A., Harvey, D.P, Ferrante, A. and Murray, A.W. (1991) The neutrophil respiratory burst: response to fatty acids, N-formylme-thionylleucyl phenylalanine and phorbol ester suggest divergent signalling mechanisms. European Journal of Biochemistry 198, 801-806.

Hayashi, N., Tashiro, T., Yamamori, H., Takagi, K., Morishima, Y., Otsubo, Y., Sugiura, T., Furukawa, K., Nitta, H., Nakajima, N., Suzuki, N. and Ito, I. (1998) Effects of intravenous omega-3 and omega-6 fat emulsion on cytokine production and delayed type hypersensitivity in burned rats receiving total parenteral nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 22, 363-367.

Healy, D., Wallace, FA., Miles, E.A., Calder, PC. and Newsholme, P (2000) The effect of low to moderate amounts of dietary fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function. Lipids 35, 763-768.

Hebert, J.R., Barone, J., Reddy, M.M. and Backlund, J.Y. (1990) Natural killer cell activity in a longitudinal dietary fat intervention trial. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 54, 103-116.

Huang, S.-C., Misfeldt, M.L. and Fritsche, K.L. (1992) Dietary fat influences Ia antigen expression and immune cell populations in the murine peritoneum and spleen. Journal of Nutrition 122, 1219-1231.

Hubbard, N.E., Somers, S.D. and Erickson, K.L. (1991) Effect of dietary fish oil on development and selected functions of murine inflammatory macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 49, 592-598.

Hughes, D.A. (1998) In vitro and in vivo effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on human monocyte function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 521-525.

Hughes, D.A. and Pinder, A.C. (2000) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit the antigen-presenting function of human monocytes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 357S-360S.

Hughes, D.A., Pinder, A.C., Piper, Z., Johnson, I.T. and Lund, E.K. (1996) Fish oil supplementation inhibits the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and adhesion molecules on human monocytes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 267-272.

Jackson, S.M., Parhami, F, Xi, X.-P, Berliner, J.A., Hsueh, W.A., Law, R.E. and Demer, L.L. (1999) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activators target human endothelial cells to inhibit leucocyte-endothelial cell interaction. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 19, 2094-2104.

James, M.J. and Cleland, L.G. (1997) Dietary n-3 fatty acids and therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 27, 85-97.

James, M.J., Gibson, R.A. and Cleland, L.G. (2000) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 343S-348S.

Jeffery, N.M., Sanderson, P, Sherrington, E.J., Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, PC. (1996) The ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat diet alters serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. Lipids 31, 737-745.

Jeffery, N.M., Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, PC. (1997) The level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the rat diet both affect serum lipid levels and lymphocyte functions. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 57, 149-160.

Jenski, L.J., Bowker, G.M., Johnson, M.A., Ehringer, W.D., Fetterhoff, T. and Stillwell, W. (1995) Docosahexaenoic acid-induced alteration of Thy-1 and CD8 expression on murine splenocytes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1236, 39-50.

Jiang, C.Y., Ting, A.T. and Seed, B. (1998) PPAR-gamma agonists inhibit production of monocyte inflammatory cytokines. Nature 391, 82-86.

Jolly, C.A., Jiang, Y.-H., Chapkin, R.S. and McMurray, D.N. (1997) Dietary (n-3) polyun-saturated fatty acids suppress murine lymphoproliferation, interleukin-2 secretion and the formation of diacylglycerol and ceramide. Journal of Nutrition 127, 37-43.

Jonnalagadda, S.S., Egan, S.K., Heimbach, J.T., Harris, S.S. and Kris-Etherton, PM. (1995) Fatty acid consumption pattern of Americans: 1987-1988 USDA Nationwide Food Consumption Survey. Nutrition Research 15, 1767-1781.

Keissling, R., Wasserman, K., Horiguchi, S., Kono, K., Sjoberg, J., Pisa, P and Petersson, M. (1999) Tumor-induced immune dysfunction. Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 48, 353-362.

Kelley, D.S. and Daudu, PA. (1993) Fat intake and immune response. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science 17, 41-63.

Kelley, D.S., Branch, L.B. and Iacono, J.M. (1989) Nutritional modulation of human immune status. Nutrition Research 9, 965-975.

Kelley, D.S., Branch, L.B., Love, J.E., Taylor, PC., Rivera, Y.M. and Iacono, J.M. (1991) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid and immunocompetence in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 40-46.

Kelley, D.S., Dougherty, R.M., Branch, L.B., Taylor, PC. and Iacono, J.M. (1992) Concentration of dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human immune status. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 62, 240-244.

Kelley, VE., Ferretti, A., Izui, S. and Strom, T.B. (1985) A fish oil diet rich in eicosapen-taenoic acid reduces cyclooxygenase metabolites and suppresses lupus in MRL-lpr mice. Journal of Immunology 134, 1914-1919.

Kennedy, E.T., Bowman, S.A. and Powell, R. (1999) Dietary-fat intake in the US population. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 18, 207-212.

Khair-el-Din, T., Sicher, S.C., Vazquez, M.A., Chung, G.W., Stallwort, K.A., Kitamura, K., Miller, R.T. and Lu, C.Y. (1996) Transcription of the murine iNOS gene is inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid, a major constituent of fetal and neonatal sera as well as fish oils. Journal of Experimental Medicine 183, 1241-1246.

Kinsella, J.E., Lokesh, B., Broughton, S. and Whelan, J. (1990) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids: potential effects on the modulation of inflammatory and immune cells: an overview. Nutrition 6, 24-44.

Kleemann, R., Scott, FW., Worz-Pagenstert, U., Ratnayake, W.M.N. and Kolb, H. (1998) Impact of dietary fat on the Th1/Th2 cytokine gene expression in the pancreas and gut of diabetes-prone BB rats. Journal of Autoimmunity 11, 97-103.

Kleiwer, S.A., Lenhard, J.M., Willson, T.M., Patel, I., Morris, D.C. and Lehman, J.M. (1995) A prostaglandin J2 metabolite binds peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor 7 and promotes adipocyte differentiation. Cell 83, 813-819.

Lanza-Jacoby, S., Flynn, J.T. and Miller, S. (2001) Parenteral supplementation with a fish oil emulsion prolongs survival and improves lymphocyte function during sepsis. Nutrition 17, 112-116.

Lee, T.H., Hoover, R.L., Williams, J.D., Sperling, R.I., Ravalese, J., Spur, B.W., Robinson, D.R., Corey, E.J., Lewis, R.A. and Austen, K.F (1985) Effects of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on in vitro neu-trophil and monocyte leucotriene generation and neutrophil function. New England Journal of Medicine 312, 1217-1224.

Leslie, C.A., Gonnerman, W.A., Ullman, M.D., Hayes, K.C., Franzblau, C. and Cathcart, E.S. (1985) Dietary fish oil modulates macrophage fatty acids and decreases arthritis susceptibility in mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine 162, 1336-1349.

Lewis, R.A., Austen, K.F and Soberman, R.J. (1990) Leukotrienes and other products of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway: biochemistry and relation to pathobiology in human diseases. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 645-655

Lo, C.J., Chiu, K.C., Fu, M., Lo, R. and Helton, S. (1999) Fish oil decreases macrophage tumor necrosis factor gene transcription by altering the NFkappaB activity. Journal of Surgical Research 82, 216-221.

Lokesh, B.R., Hseih, H.L. and Kinsella, J.E. (1986) Peritoneal macrophages from mice fed dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids secrete low levels of prostaglandins. Journal of Nutrition 116, 2547-2552.

Luostarinen, R., Siegbahn, A. and Saldeen, T. (1992) Effect of dietary fish oil supplemented with different doses of vitamin E on neutrophil chemotaxis in healthy volunteers. Nutrition Research 12, 1419-1430.

Mann, N.J., Johnson, L.G., Warrick, G.E. and Sinclair, A.J. (1995) The arachidonic acid content of the Australian diet is lower than previously estimated. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2528-2535.

Marignani, PA. and Sebaldt, R.J. (1995) Formation of second messenger diradylglycerol in murine peritoneal macrophages is altered after in vivo (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Journal of Nutrition 125, 3030-3040.

Marshall, L.A. and Johnston, P.V. (1985) The influence of dietary essential fatty acids on rat immunocompetent cell prostaglandin synthesis and mitogen-induced blastogen-esis. Journal of Nutrition 115, 1572-1580.

Marx, N., Sukhova, G.K., Collins, T., Libby, P and Plutzky, J. (1999) PPARa activators inhibit cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in human endothelial cells. Circulation 99, 3125-3131.

Mascioli, E.A., Leader, L., Flores, E., Trimbo, S., Bistrian, B. and Blackburn, G. (1988) Enhanced survival to endotoxin in guinea pigs fed iv fish oil emulsion. Lipids 23, 623-625.

Mascioli, E.A., Iwasa, Y., Trimbo, S., Leader, L., Bistrian, B.R. and Blackburn, G.L. (1989) Endotoxin challenge after menhaden oil diet: effects on survival of guinea pigs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 277-282.

Meydani, S.N., Yogeeswaran, G., Liu, S., Baskar, S. and Meydani, M. (1988) Fish oil and tocopherol-induced changes in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and PGE2 synthesis in young and old mice. Journal of Nutrition 118, 1245-1252.

Meydani, S.N., Endres, S., Woods, M.M., Goldin, B.R., Soo, C., Morrill-Labrode, A., Dinarello, C. and Gorbach, S.L. (1991) Oral (n-3) fatty acid supplementation suppresses cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation: comparison between young and older women. Journal of Nutrition 121, 547-555.

Meydani, S.N., Lichtenstein, A.H., Cornwall, S., Meydani, M., Goldin, B.R., Rasmussen, H., Dinarello, C.A. and Schaefer, E.J. (1993) Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived n-3 fatty acid enrichment. Journal of Clinical Investigation 92, 105-113.

Miles, E.A. and Calder, PC. (1998) Modulation of immune function by dietary fatty acids. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 277-292.

Miles, E.A., Wallace, F.A. and Calder, P.C. (2000) Dietary fish oil reduces intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and scavenger receptor expression on murine macrophages. Atherosclerosis 152, 43-50.

Molvig, J., Pociot, F, Worsaae, H., Wogensen, L.D., Baek, L., Christensen, P, Mandrup-Poulsen, T., Andersen, K., Madsen, P, Dyerberg, J. and Nerup, J. (1991) Dietary supplementation with w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases mononuclear cell proliferation and interleukin-1 p content but not monokine secretion in healthy and insulin-dependent diabetic individuals. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 34, 399-410.

Peterson, L.D., Jeffery, N.M., Thies, F, Sanderson, P, Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, PC. (1998) Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids alter rat spleen leucocyte fatty acid composition and prostaglandin E2 production but have different effects on lymphocyte functions and cell-mediated immunity. Lipids 33, 171-180.

Poynter, M.E. and Daynes, R.A. (1998) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation modulates cellular redox status, represses nuclear factor kappa B signalling, and reduces inflammatory cytokine production in ageing. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273, 32833-32841.

Prickett, J.D., Robinson, D.R. and Steinberg, A.D. (1983) Effects of dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic acid upon autoimmune nephritis in female NZB X NZW/F1 mice. Arthritis and Rheumatism 26, 133-139.

Pscheidl, E., Schywalsky, M., Tschaikowsky, K. and Boke-Prols, T. (2000) Fish oil-supplemented parenteral diets normalize splanchnic blood flow and improve killing of translocated bacteria in a low-dose endotoxin rat model. Critical Care Medicine 28, 1489-1496.

Rayon, J.I., Carver, J.D., Wyble, L.E., Wiener, D., Dickey, S.S., Benford, VJ., Chen, L.T. and Lim, D.V (1997) The fatty acid composition of maternal diet affects lung prostaglandin E2 levels and survival from group B streptococcal sepsis in neonatal rat pups. Journal of Nutrition 127, 1989-1992.

Renier, G., Skamene, E., de Sanctis, J. and Radzioch, D. (1993) Dietary n-3 polyunsat-urated fatty acids prevent the development of atherosclerotic lesions in mice: modulation of macrophage secretory activities. Arteriosclerosis and Thombosis 13, 1515-1524.

Resch, K., Gelfrand, E.W., Hansen, K. and Ferber, E. (1972) Lymphocyte activation: rapid changes in the phospholipid metabolism of plasma membranes during stimulation. European Journal of Immunology 2, 598-601.

Ricote, M., Li, A.C., Willson, T.M., Kelly, C.J. and Glass, C.K. (1998) The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is a negative regulator of macrophage activation. Nature 391, 79-82.

Robinson, D.R., Prickett, J.D., Polisson, R., Steinberg, A.D. and Levine, L. (1985) The protective effect of dietary fish oil on murine lupus. Prostaglandins 30, 51-75.

Robinson, D.R., Prickett, J.D., Makoul, G.T., Steinberg, A.D. and Colvin, R.B. (1986) Dietary fish oil reduces progression of established renal disease in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice and delays renal disease in BXSB and MRL/1 strains. Arthritis and Rheumatism 29, 539-546.

Robinson, D.R., Urakaze, M., Huang, R., Taki, H., Sugiyama, E., Knoell, C.T., Xu, L., Yeh, E.T.H. and Auron, PE. (1996) Dietary marine lipids suppress continuous expression on interleukin-1 p gene expression. Lipids 31, S23-S31.

Robinson, L.E. and Field, C.J. (1998) Dietary long chain (n-3) fatty acids facilitate immune cell activation in sedentary, but not exercise-trained rats. Journal of Nutrition 128, 498-504.

Robinson, L.E., Clandinin, M.T. and Field, C.J. (2001) R3230AC rat mammary tumor and dietary long-chain (n-3) fatty acids change immune cell composition and function during mitogen activation. Journal of Nutrition 131, 2021-2027.

Robinson, L.E., Clandinin, M.T. and Field, C.J. (2002) The role of dietary long chain n-3 fatty acids in membrane-mediated immune defence and R3230AC mammary tumor growth in rats: influence of dietary fat composition. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 73, 145-160.

Rodgers, J.B. (1998) n-3 Fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In: Kremer, J.M. (ed.) Medicinal Fatty Acids in Inflammation. Birkhauser Verlag, Basle, pp. 103-109.

Sadeghi, S., Wallace, FA. and Calder, PIC. (1999) Dietary lipids modify the cytokine response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mice. Immunology 96, 404-410.

Sakata, A., Ida, E., Tominaga, M. and Onoue, K. (1987) Arachidonic acid acts as an intracellular activator of the NADPH oxidase in Fcgamma receptor mediated superoxide generation in macrophages. Journal of Immunology 138, 4353-4359.

Sanderson, P and Calder, PC. (1998a) Dietary fish oil diminishes lymphocyte adhesion to macrophage and endothelial cell monolayers. Immunology 94, 79-87.

Sanderson, P and Calder, PC. (1998b) Dietary fish oil appears to inhibit the activation of phospholipase C-7 in lymphocytes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1392, 300-308.

Sanderson, P, Yaqoob, P and Calder, PC. (1995) Effects of dietary lipid manipulation upon graft vs. host and host vs. graft responses in the rat. Cellular Immunology 164, 240-247.

Sanderson, P, MacPherson, G.G., Jenkins, C.H. and Calder, PC. (1997) Dietary fish oil diminishes antigen presentation activity by rat dendritic cells. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 62, 771-777.

Sanderson, P, Thies, F and Calder, PC. (2000) Extracellular release of free fatty acids by rat T lymphocytes is stimulus-dependent and is affected by dietary lipid manipulation. Cell Biochemistry and Function 18, 47-58.

Santoli, D., Phillips, FID., Colt, T.L. and Zurier, R.B. (1990) Suppression of interleukin-2-dependent human T-cell growth in vitro by prostaglandin E (PGE) and their precursor fatty acids. Journal of Clinical Investigation 85, 424-432.

Schmidt, E.B., Pedesen, J.O., Ekelund, S., Grunnet, N., Jersild, C. and Dyerberg, J. (1989) Cod liver oil inhibits neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis in healthy males. Atherosclerosis 77, 53-57.

Schmidt, E.B., Varming, K., Pederson, J.O., Lervang, H.H., Grunnet, N., Jersild, C. and Dyerberg, J. (1992) Long term supplementation with n-3 fatty acids. II. Effect on neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigations 52, 229-236.

Schmidt, E.B., Varming, K., Moller, J.M., Bulow Pederson, I., Madsen, P and Dyerberg, J. (1996) No effect of a very low dose of n-3 fatty acids on monocyte function in healthy humans. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Investigation 56, 87-92

Schoonjans, K., Staels, B. and Auwerx, J. (1996) The peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and their effects on lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1302, 93-109.

Shewchuk, L.D., Baracos, V.E. and Field, C.J. (1996) Reduced splenocyte metabolism and immune function in rats implanted with the Morris-hepatoma 7777. Metabolism 45, 848-855.

Sinclair, A.J. and O'Dea, K. (1993) The significance of arachidonic acid in hunter-gatherer diets: implications for the contemporary Western diet. Journal of Food Lipids 1, 143-157.

Somers, S.D., Chapkin, R.S. and Erickson, K.L. (1989) Alteration of in vitro murine peritoneal macrophage function by dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in menhaden fish oil. Cellular Immunology 123, 201-211.

Soyland, E., Nenseter, M.S., Braathen, L. and Drevon, C.A. (1993) Very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit proliferation of human T lymphocytes in vitro. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 23, 112-121.

Sperling, R.I. (1998) The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neutrophils. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 527-534.

Sperling, R.I., Benincaso, A.I., Knoell, C.T., Larkin, J.K., Austen, K.F and Robinson, D.R. (1993) Dietary w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit phosphoinositide formation and chemotaxis in neutrophils. Journal of Clinical Investigation 91, 651-660.

Stubbs, C.D. and Smith, A.D. (1984) The modification of mammalian membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition to membrane fluidity and function. Biochimica et. Biophysica Acta 779, 89-137.

Takano, H., Nagai, T., Asakawa, M., Toyozaki, T., Oka, T., Komuro, I., Saito, T. and Masuda, Y. (2000) Peroxisome proliferator-receptor activators inhibit lipopolysac-charide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Circulation Research 87, 596-602.

Tashiro, T., Yamamori, H., Takagi, K., Hayashi, N., Furukawa, K. and Nakajima, N. (1998) N-3 versus n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in critical illness. Nutrition 14, 551-553.

Tepaske, R., te Velthuis, H., Oudemans-van Straaten, M., Heisterkamp, S.H., van Deventer, S.J.H., Ince, C., Eysman, L. and Keseciogu, J. (2001) Effect of preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutritional supplement on patients at risk of infection after cardiac surgery: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 358, 696-701.

Thies, F., Nebe-von-Caron, G., Powell, J.R., Yaqoob, P., Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, P.C. (2001a) Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged > 55 y. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, 539-548.

Thies, F, Miles, E.A., Nebe-von-Caron, G., Powell, J.R., Hurst, T.L., Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, P.C. (2001b) Influence of dietary supplementation with long chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 36, 1183-1193.

Thies, F., Nebe-von-Caron, G., Powell, J.R., Yaqoob, P., Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, P.C. (2001c) Dietary supplementation with 7-linolenic acid or with fish oil decreases T lymphocyte proliferation in healthy older humans. Journal of Nutrition 131, 1918-1927.

Tilley, S.L., Coffman, T.M. and Koller, B.H. (2001) Mixed messages: modulation of inflammation and immune responses by prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Journal of Clinical Investigation 108, 15-23.

Venkatraman, J.T. and Chu, W.C. (1999) Effects of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 lipids and vitamin E on serum cytokines, lipid mediators and anti-DNA antibodies in a mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 18, 602-613.

Vilaseca, J., Salas, A., Guarner, F., Rodriguez, R., Martinez, M. and Malagelada, J.-R. (1990) Dietary fish oil reduces progresssion of chronic inflammatory lesions in a rat model of granulomatous colitis. Gut 31, 539-544.

Volker, D. and Garg, M. (1996) Dietary n-3 fatty acid supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis - mechanisms, clinical outcomes, controversies, and future directions. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 20, 83-87.

Volker, D.H., FitzGerald, PE.B. and Garg, M.L. (2000) The eicosapentaenoic to docosahexaenoic acid ratio of diets affects the pathogenesis of arthritis in Lew/SSN rats. Journal of Nutrition 130, 559-565.

Wachtler, P, Konig, W., Senkal, M., Kemen, M. and Koller, M. (1997) Influence of a total parenteral nutrition enriched with w-3 fatty acids on leucotriene synthesis of peripheral leucocytes and systemic cytokine levels in patients with major surgery. Journal of Trauma 42, 191-198.

Wallace, F.A., Neely, S.J., Miles, E.A. and Calder, P.C. (2000) Dietary fats affect macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity towards tumour cells. Immunology and Cell Biology 78, 40-48.

Wallace, F.A., Miles, E.A., Evans, C., Stock, T.E., Yaqoob, P. and Calder, P.C. (2001) Dietary fatty acids influence the production of Th1- but not Th2-type cytokines. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 69, 449-457.

Wang, P, Anderson, PO., Chen, S.W., Paulsson, K.M., Sjogren, H.O. and Li, S.L. (2001) Inhibition of the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappa B in CD4 T-cells by per-oxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands. International Immunopharmacology 1, 803-812.

Wu, D. and Meydani, S.N. (1998) n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids and immune function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 503-509.

Wu, G.H., Zhang, Y.W. and Wu, Z.H. (2001) Modulation of postoperative immune and inflammatory response by immune-enhancing enteral diet in gastrointestinal cancer patients. World Review of Gastroenterology 7, 357-362.

Xi, S., Cohen, D., Barve, S. and Chen, L.H. (2001) Fish oil suppressed cytokines and nuclear factor kappaB induced by murine AIDS virus infection. Nutrition Research 21, 865-878.

Xu, X., Otsuki, M., Saito, H., Sumitani, S., Yamamoto, H., Asanuma, N., Kouhara, H. and Kasayama, S. (2001) PPAR alpha and GR differentially down-regulate the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B-responsive genes in vascular endothelial cells. Endocrinology 142, 3332-3339.

Yaqoob, P (1998a) Lipids and the immune response. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 1, 153-161.

Yaqoob, P. (1998b) Monounsaturated fats and immune function. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 511-520.

Yaqoob, P and Calder, PC. (1995) Effects of dietary lipid manipulation upon inflammatory mediator production by murine macrophages. Cellular Immunology 163, 120-128.

Yaqoob, P, Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, PC. (1994a) Inhibition of natural killer cell activity by dietary lipids. Immunology Letters 41, 241-247.

Yaqoob, P, Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, PC. (1994b) The effect of dietary lipid manipulation on rat lymphocyte subsets and proliferation. Immunology 82, 603-610.

Yaqoob, P, Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, PC. (1995) Influence of cell culture conditions on diet-induced changes in lymphocyte fatty acid composition. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1255, 333-340.

Yaqoob, P, Pala, H.S., Cortina-Borja, M., Newsholme, E.A. and Calder, PC. (2000) Encapsulated fish oil enriched in a-tocopherol alters plasma phospholipid and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions but not mononuclear cell functions. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 30, 260-274.

Ziboh, VA. (1998) The role of n-3 fatty acids in psoriasis. In: Kremer, J.M. (ed.) Medicinal Fatty Acids in Inflammation. Birkhauser Verlag, Basle, pp. 45-53.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

Do you hate the spring? Do you run at the site of a dog or cat? Do you carry around tissues wherever you go? Youre not alone. 51 Ways to Reduce Allergies can help. Find all these tips and more Start putting those tissues away. Get Your Copy Of 51 Ways to Reduce Allergies Today.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment