A wide range of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) occur against antigens associated with cell nuclei, including autoantibodies to DNA, histones, small nuclear RNP (snRNP), Ro/SS-A, La/SS-B, and tRNA synthetase. Many fine specificities have been defined amongst the various types of ANA. Diseases in which ANAs are particularly prevalent include mixed connective tissue disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, the CREST syndrome and progressive systemic sclerosis.
They are also commonly seen, although at a lower frequency, in rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögrens syndrome. IIF is used as an initial screening test for the occurrence of ANAs. Antibodies to many of the specific antigens can be measured in ELISA, although RIA (including the Farr assay and PEG assay), immunoblot, immunoelectrophoresis, RNA precipitation, and the LE-cell test are all commonly employed.
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