Chicken type II collagen
Oral administration of type II collagen (CII) suppresses several models of arthritis including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), adjuvant arthritis and pris-tane-induced arthritis. One of the first studies to demonstrate that an orally administered autoantigen can suppress an autoimmune disease was the use of oral CII in CIA. Of note is that oral type I collagen has also been shown to suppress adjuvant arthritis. Oral administration of an immunodominant human collagen peptide modulates CIA in mice and CII peptides given nasally also suppress CIA in mice.
Oral administration of S-antigen (S-Ag), a retinal autoantigen that induces experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), or of S-Ag peptides prevents or markedly diminishes the clinical appearance of S-Ag-induced disease as measured by ocular inflammation. Oral administration of interphotoreceptor-binding protein (IRBP) suppresses IRBP-induced disease and is potentiated by IL-2.
Although myasthenia gravis is an antibody-mediated disease, either oral or nasal administration of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor to Lewis rats prevented or delayed the onset of myasthenia gravis. Large doses of antigen were required.
Oral insulin has been shown to delay and in some instances prevent diabetes in the NOD (nonobese diabetic) mouse model. Such suppression is transferable and it has been transferred primarily with CD4+ cells. Immunohistochemistry of pancreatic islets of insulin-fed animals demonstrates decreased insulitis associated with decreased IEN-y and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) together with increased expression of IL-4, 11.-10, TGFp, and prostaglandin E, (PCE2i. It has also been recently reported that nasal administration of the insulin B chain or GAD suppresses diabetes in the NOD mouse.
Oral allogeneic cells prevents sensitization by skin grafts, and transforms accelerated rejection of vascularized cardiac allografts in primed animals to a time course typical of unsensitized recipients. Orally administered allopeptides in the Lewis rat reduces delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to the peptide. Oral but not intravenous alloantigen was accompanied by elevation of intragraft IL-4. Oral thyroglobulin has been shown to suppress autoimmune thyroiditis and oral administration of peptides from the Der p I allergen suppressed responses to the whole allergen. Recently it has been shown that experimental granulomatous colitis in mice is abrogated by TGF(3-mediarcd oral tolerance after administration of haptenized colonic proteins.
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