Further reading

Brezinschek HP, Gruschwitz M, Sgonc R et til. (1993) Effects of cytokine application on glucocorticoid secretion in an animal model for systemic scleroderma. Journal of Autoimmunity 6: 719-733. Cohen PL and Eisenberg RA (1991) Ipr and gld: single gene models of systemic autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative disease. Annual Review of Immunology 9: 243-289.

Diabetes Task Force (1982) Section I. Animal models presently used in diabetes meilitus research. Diabetes 31: S1-S53.

Dotta F and Eisenbarth GS (1989) Type I diabetes meilitus: a predictable autoimmune disease with interindividual variation in the rate of 3 cell destruction. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 50: S85-S95. Gershwin ME, Abplanalp H, Castle JJ et al. (1981) Characterization of a spontaneous disease of White Leghorn chickens resembling progressive systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Journal of Experimental Medicine 153: 1640-1659.

Gruschwitz MS, Moormann S, Kroemer G et al. (1991) Phenotypic analysis of skin infiltrates in comparison with peripheral blood lymphocytes, spleen cells and thymocytes in early avian scleroderma. Journal of Autoimmunity 4: 577-593.

Kroemer G (1994) Mechanisms of Self-Tolerance, p 177. Austin TX: RG Landes.

Sgonc R, Dietrich H, Gershwin ME, Colombatti A and Wick G (1995) Genomic analysis of collagen and endogenous virus loci in the UCD 200 and 206 lines of chickens, animal models for scleroderma. J Autoimmunity 8: 763-770.

Sgonc R, Gruschwitz M, Dietrich H, Recheis H, Gersch-win ME and Wick G (1996) Endothelial cell apoptosis is a primary pathogenetic event underlying skin lesions in avian and human scleroderma. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98: 785-792.

Theofilopoulos AN (1995) The basis of autoimmunity. Part II. Genetic predisposition. Immunology Today 16: 150-159.

Theofilopoulos AN and Dixon FJ (1985) Models of sys temic lupus erythematosus. Advances in Immunology 37: 269-353.

Theofilopoulos AN, Kofler R, Singer PA and Dixon FJ (1989) Molecular genetics of murine lupus models. Advances in Immunology 46: 61-109.

Van de Water J, Gershwin ME, Abplanalp H, Wick G and Von der Mark K (1984) Serial observations and definition of mononuclear cell infiltrates in avian scleroderma, an inherited fibrotic disease of chickens. Arthritis and Rheumatism 27: 807-815.

Wick G, Brezinschek HP, Häla K, Dietrich H, Wolf H and Kroemer G (1989) The obese strain (OS) of chickens. An animal model with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. Advances in Immunology 47: 433-500.

Wick G, Hu Y, Schwarz S and Kroemer G (1993) Immuno-endocrine communication via the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in autoimmune disease. Endocrine Reviews 14: 539-563.

Wicker LS, Todd JA and Peterson LB (1995) Genetic control of autoimmune diabetes in the NOD mouse. Annual Review of Immunology 13: 179-200.

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