Further reading

Chen Y, Kuchroo VK, Inobe J-I et ,il (1994) Regulatory T cell cloncs induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Science 265: 1237-1240.

Chen Y, Inobe J-I, Marks R et al (1995) Peripheral deletion of antigen-rcactive T cells in oral tolerance. Nature 376: 177-180.

Chen Y, Inobe J-i, Kuchroo VK et al (1996) Oral tolerance in myelin basic protein T-cell receptor transgenic mice: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and dose-dependent induction of regulatory cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93: 388-391.

Daniel D and Wegmann DR (1996) Protection of non-obese diabetic mice from diabetics by intranasal or subcutaneous administration of insulin peptide B-(9-23). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 93: 956-960. Friedman A and Weiner HI. (1994) Induction of anergy or active suppression following oral tolerance is determined by antigen dosage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 91: 6688-6692. Fukaura H, Kent SC, Pietrusewicz MJ et al (1996) Induction of circulating myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein specific TGF-f51 secreting T cells by oral administration of myelin in multiple sclerosis patients. Journal of Clinical Investigation 98: 70-77. Husby S, Mestecky J, Moldoveanu Z et al (1994) Oral tolerance in humans: Tcell but not B cell tolerance after antigen feeding. Journal of immunology 152: 4663-4670.

Metzlcr B and Wraith DC (1993) Inhibition of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhalation but not oral administration of the encephalitogenic peptide: influence of MHC binding affinity. International Immunology 5: 1159-1165. Miller A, Lider O and Weiner HI. (1991) Antigen-driven bystander suppression following oral administration of antigens. Journal of Experimental Medicine 174: 791-798.

Neurath MF, Fuss I, Kelsall BI. et al (1996) F.xperimental granulomatous colitis in mice is abrogated by induction of TGF-3-mediated oral tolerance. Journal of Experimental Medicine 183: 2605-2616. Nussenblatt RB, Caspi RR, Mahdi R et al (1990) Irihi-

bition of S-antigen induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis by oral induction of tolerance with S-anti-gen. Journal of immunology 144: 1689-1695.

Sun J-B, Holmgren C and Czerkinsky C (1994) Cholera toxin B subunit: an efficient transmucosal carrier-delivery system for induction of peripheral immunological tolerance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 91: 10795-10799.

Tian J, Atkinson MA, Clare-Salzler M et al (1996) Nasal administration of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) peptides induces Th2 responses and prevents murine insulin-dependent diabetes. Journal of Experimental Medicine 183: 1561-1567.

Trentham DE, Dynesius-Trentham RA, Orav EJ et al (1993) Effects of oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis. Science 261: 1727-1730.

Weiner HL (1997) Oral tolerance: immune mcchanisms and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Immunology Today 18: 335-343.

Weiner HI. (1997) Oral tolerance for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Annual Review of Medicine 48: 341-351.

Weiner HI. and Mayer LF (eds) (1996) Oral Tolerance: Mechanisms and Applications. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Weiner HL, Mackin GA, Matsui M et al (1993) Doubleblind pilot trial of oral tolerization with myelin antigens in multiple sclerosis. Science 259: 1321-1324.

Whitacre CC, Gicnapp IE, Orosz CG and Bitar D ( 1 991 ) Oral tolerancc in experimental autoimmune encephalo-myelits. III. Evidence for clonal anergy. journal of Immunology 147: 2155-2163.

Zhang JA, Davidson L, Eisenbarth G and Weiner HI. (1991) Suppression of diabetes in NOD mice by oral administration of porcine insulin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 88: 10252-10256.

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