Other cases in which ALS has been reported of value include autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, Omenn's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, pure red cell aplasia and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The use of ALS in these conditions is not widespread, however, possibly because of problems related to repeated treatment, such as reduced effect, or anaphylactic reactions. In mice, ALS (or anti-CD4 mAbs) prevents the development of spontaneous systemic lupus (NZB strain) and diabetes (NOD strain). Experimentally induced diabetes (BALB/c strain), arthritis and myasthenia gravis are also prevented this way. In addition, ALS or more specific antibodies may prove to be useful in leukemia. A monovalent, CD3-specific mAb has been shown to deplete CD3+ tumor cells effectively in a patient with T cell leukemia. CAM-PATH-1 is very effective in the treatment of lymphoid malignancy and lymphoproliferative diseases. This mAb has also been tried in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.
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