Macrophages are important generators of attractants for other cell types and there is an extensive literature describing such factors. For example, many of the chemokines are made and secreted by monocytes or macrophages. These include neutrophil attractants such as interleukin 8 (IL-8). IL-15 is a molecule with functions similar to IL-2 but made by macrophages (and other cells) rather than by T cells. It is an effective attractant for T lymphocytes and is found in large amounts in the lesions of rheumatoid arthritis together with several of the chemokines. Murine macrophages from C. parfwrn-stimulated peritoneal exudates do not attract nearby lymphocytes unless they are given a phagocytic stimulus. However, immediately after phagocytosis, the macrophages release a brief pulse of an as yet unidentified attractant which causes nearby lymphocytes to migrate in by chemotaxis and to cluster round the macrophage. This may be a mechanism for focusing lymphocytes round a macrophage that is presenting newly processed antigen.
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