As mentioned, early attempts to elicit production of true AS met with failure. Immunization with antibodies originating from a species foreign to the immunized animal resulted in formation of AS of antiglobulin nature. In 1957, however, immunization of rabbits with rabbit antibodies to Proteus and Escherichia was shown by Milgrom and Dubiski to result in the formation of AAs that distinguished the anti-Proteus from the anti-Escherichia antibody and accordingly, appeared to have properties of true AAs. Subsequently, in 1963 Kunkel, Mannik and Williams as well as Oudin and Michel, used various protocols of immunization of animals and succeeded in eliciting formation of what appeared to be true AAs. They called them idiotypic antibodies. Further studies, however, showed that the idiotypic specificity cannot be equated with the structure of the antibody-combining site, even if it is closely related to this structure.
See also: Allotypes, immunoglobin; Antibodies, specificity; Antiglobulin (Coombs') test; Idiotype; Natural antibodies; Rheumatoid arthritis, animal models; Rheumatoid arthritis, human.
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