Acknowledgements

This work has been partly supported through an R01 grant number AR47433 to APS and a Scientist Development Award 0030184N from the American Heart Association

National office to APS. This chapter is based on an invited review article published by us in the Glycoconjugate Journal with permission (50). Fig. 2 was printed with permission from the Journal of Clinical Investigation (6).

References

1. Watanabe H, Kimata K, Line S, Strong D, Gao LY, Kozak CA, Yamada Y. Mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) caused by a 7 bp deletion in the aggrecan gene. Nat Genet 1994; 7:154-157.

2. Watanabe H, Yamada Y. Mice lacking link protein develop dwarfism and craniofacial abnormalities. Nat Genet 1999; 21:225 -229.

3. Schmits R, Filmus J, Gerwin N, Senaldi G, Kiefer F, Kundig T, Wakeham A, Shahinian A, Catzavelos C, Rak J, Furlonger C, Zakarian A, Simard JJ, Ohashi PS, Paige CJ, Gutierrez-Ramos JC, Mak TW. CD44 regulates hematopoietic progenitor distribution, granuloma formation, and tumorigenicity. Blood 1997; 90: 2217-2233.

4. Tolg C, Poon R, Fodde R, Turley EA, Alman BA. Genetic deletion of receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (Rhamm) attenuates the formation of aggressive fibromatosis (desmoid tumor). Oncogene 2003; 22:6873-6882.

5. Yamamura H, Zhang M, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. A heart segmental defect in the anterior-posterior axis of a transgenic mutant mouse. Dev Biol 1997; 186: 58-72.

6. Camenisch TD, Spicer AP, Brehm-Gibson T, Biesterfeldt J, Augustine ML, Calabro A Jr, Kubalak S, Klewer SE, McDonald JA. Disruption of hyaluronan synthase-2 abrogates normal cardiac morphogenesis and hyaluronan-mediated transformation of epithelium to mesenchyme. J Clin Investig 2000; 106:349-360.

7. Zhou XH, Brakebusch C, Matthies H, Oohashi T, Hirsch E, Moser M, Krug M, Seidenbecher CI, Boeckers TM, Rauch U, Buettner R, Gundelfinger ED, Fassler R. Neurocan is dispensable for brain development. Mol Cell Biol 2001; 21: 5970-5978.

8. Weigel PH, Hascall VC, Tammi M. Hyaluronan synthases. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 13997-14000.

9. Spicer AP, McDonald JA. Characterization and molecular evolution of a vertebrate hyaluronan synthase (HAS) gene family. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:1923-1932.

10. Itano N, Sawai T, Yoshida M, Lenas P, Yamada Y, Imagawa M, Shinomura T, Hamaguchi M, Yoshida Y, Ohnuki Y, Miyauchi S, Spicer AP, McDonald JA, Kimata K. Three isoforms of mammalian hyaluronan synthases have distinct enzymatic properties. J Biol Chem 1999; 274:25085-25092.

11. Spicer AP, Seldin MF, Olsen AS, Brown N, Wells DE, Doggett NA, Itano N, Kimata K, Inazawa J, McDonald JA. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes. Genomics 1997; 41:493-497.

12. Monslow J, Williams JD, Norton N, Guy CA, Price IK, Coleman SL, Williams NM, Buckland PR, Spicer AP, Topley N, Davies M, Bowen T. The human hyaluronan synthase genes: genomic structures, proximal promoters and polymorphic microsatellite markers. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2003; 35:1272-1283.

13. Jacobsen A, Brinck J, Briskin MJ, Spicer AP, Heldin P. Expression of human hyaluronan synthases in response to external stimuli. Biochem J 1999; 348:29-35.

14. Kaback LA, Smith TJ. Expression of hyaluronan synthase messenger ribonucleic acids and their induction by interleukin-lbeta in human orbital fibroblasts: potential insight into the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:4079-4084.

15. Nishida Y, Knudson CB, Eger W, Kuettner KE, Knudson W. Osteogenic protein 1 stimulates cell-associated matrix assembly by normal human articular chondro-cytes: up-regulation of hyaluronan synthase, CD44, and aggrecan. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43:206-214.

16. Ohno S, Tanimoto K, Fujimoto K, Ijuin C, Honda K, Tanaka N, Doi T, Nakahara M, Tanne K. Molecular cloning of rabbit hyaluronic acid synthases and their expression patterns in synovial membrane and articular cartilage. Biochim Biophys Acta 2001; 1520:71-78.

17. Pasonen-Seppanen S, Karvinen S, Torronen K, Hyttinen JM, Jokela T, Lammi MJ, Tammi MI, Tammi R. EGF upregulates, whereas TGF-beta down regulates, the hyaluronan synthases Has2 and Has3 in organotypic keratinocyte cultures: correlations with epidermal proliferation and differentiation. J Investig Dermatol 2003; 120:1038-1044.

18. Fenderson BA, Stamenkovic I, Aruffo A. Localization of hyaluronan in mouse embryos during implantation, gastrulation and organogenesis. Differentiation 1993; 54:85-98.

19. Conlon RA, Rossant J. Exogenous retinoic acid rapidly induces anterior ectopic expression of murine Hox-2 genes in vivo. Development 1992; 116: 357-368.

20. Tucker AS, Sharpe PT. Molecular genetics of tooth morphogenesis and patterning: the right shape in the right place. J Dent Res 1999; 78:826-834.

21. Mummert ME, Mummert D, Edelbaum D, Hui F, Matsue H, Takashima A. Synthesis and surface expression of hyaluronan by dendritic cells and its potential role in antigen presentation. J Immunol 2002; 169:4322-4331.

22. Sayo T, Sugiyama Y, Takahashi Y, Ozawa N, Sakai S, Ishikawa O, Tamura M, Inoue S. Hyaluronan synthase 3 regulates hyaluronan synthesis in cultured human keratinocytes. J Investig Dermatol 2002; 118:43-48.

23. Fulop C, Salustri A, Hascall VC. Coding sequence of a hyaluronan synthase homologue expressed during expansion of the mouse cumulus -oocyte complex. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 337:261-266.

24. Mrosek E, Erggelet C, McDonald JA, Kurz H. Hyaluronan synthases in normal and regenerating joint cartilage. Cells Tissues Organs 2003; 173:93-104.

25. Elvin JA, Clark AT, Wang P, Wolfman NM, Matzuk MM. Paracrine actions of growth differentiation factor-9 in the mammalian ovary. Mol Endocrinol 1999; 13: 1035-1048.

26. Tanimoto K, Ohno S, Fujimoto K, Honda K, Ijuin C, Tanaka N, Doi T, Nakahara M, Tanne K. Proinflammatory cytokines regulate the gene expression of hyaluronic acid synthetase in cultured rabbit synovial membrane cells. Connect Tissue Res 2001; 42:187-195.

27. Karvinen S, Pasonen-Seppanen S, Hyttinen JM, Pienimaki JP, Torronen K, Jokela TA, Tammi MI, Tammi R. Keratinocyte growth factor stimulates migration and hyaluronan synthesis in the epidermis by activation of keratinocyte hyaluronan synthases 2 and 3. J Biol Chem 2003:00.

28. Zhang W, Watson CE, Liu C, Williams KJ, Werth VP. Glucocorticoids induce a near-total suppression of hyaluronan synthase mRNA in dermal fibroblasts and in osteoblasts: a molecular mechanism contributing to organ atrophy. Biochem J 2000; 349:91-97.

Dowthwaite GP, Ward AC, Flannely J, Suswillo RF, Flannery CR, Archer CW, Pitsillides AA. The effect of mechanical strain on hyaluronan metabolism in embryonic fibrocartilage cells. Matrix Biol 1999; 18:523-532. Copp AJ. Death before birth: clues from gene knockouts and mutations. Trends Genet 1995; 11:87-93.

West DC, Hampson IN, Arnold F, Kumar S. Angiogenesis induced by degradation products of hyaluronic acid. Science 1985; 228:1324-1326.

Lees VC, Fan TP, West DC. Angiogenesis in a delayed revascularization model is accelerated by angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan. Lab Investig 1995;

73:259-266.

Slevin M, Kumar S, Gaffney J. Angiogenic oligosaccharides of hyaluronan induce multiple signaling pathways affecting vascular endothelial cell mitogenic and wound healing responses. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:41046-41059. Camenisch TD, Schroeder JA, Bradley J, Klewer SE, McDonald JA. Heart-valve mesenchyme formation is dependent on hyaluronan-augmented activation of ErbB2-ErbB3 receptors. Nat Med 2002; 8:850-855.

Schroeder JA, Jackson LF, Lee DC, Camenisch TD. Form and function of developing heart valves: coordination by extracellular matrix and growth factor signaling. J Mol Med 2003; 81:392-403.

Mjaatvedt C, Yamamura H, Capehart AA, Turner D, Markwald RR. The Cspg2 gene, disrupted in the hdf mutant, is required for right cardiac chamber and endocardial cushion formation. Dev Biol 1998; 202:56-66. Toole BP. Hyaluronan is not just a goo!. J Clin Investig 2000; 106:335-336. Camenisch TD, Molin DG, Person A, Runyan RB, Gittenberger-de Groot AC, McDonald JA, Klewer SE. Temporal and distinct TGFbeta ligand requirements during mouse and avian endocardial cushion morphogenesis. Dev Biol 2002; 248: 170-181.

Lee KF, Simon H, Chen H, Bates B, Hung MC, Hauser C. Requirement for neuregulin receptor erbB2 in neural and cardiac development. Nature 1995; 378: 394-398.

Kramer R, Bucay N, Kane DJ, Martin LE, Tarpley JE, Theill LE. Neuregulins with an Ig-like domain are essential for mouse myocardial and neuronal development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93:4833-4838.

Erickson SL, O'Shea KS, Ghaboosi N, Loverro L, Frantz G, Bauer M, Lu LH, Moore MW. ErbB3 is required for normal cerebellar and cardiac development: a comparison with ErbB2-and heregulin-deficient mice. Development 1997; 124: 4999-5011.

Yang J, Boerm M, McCarty M, Bucana C, Fidler IJ, Zhuang Y, Su B. Mekk3 is essential for early embryonic cardiovascular development. Nat Genet 2000; 24: 309-313.

Meyers EN, Lewandoski M, Martin GR. An Fgf8 mutant allelic series generated by Cre- and Flp-mediated recombination. Nat Genet 1998; 18:136-141. Gage PJ, Suh H, Camper SA. Dosage requirement of Pitx2 for development of multiple organs. Development 1999; 126:4643-4651.

Nagy A, Moens C, Ivanyi E, Pawling J, Gertsenstein M, Hadjantonakis AK, Pirity M, Rossant J. Dissecting the role of N-myc in development using a single targeting vector to generate a series of alleles. Curr Biol 1998; 8:661-664.

46. Raffai RL, Weisgraber KH. Hypomorphic apolipoprotein E mice: a new model of conditional gene repair to examine apolipoprotein E-mediated metabolism. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:11064-11068.

47. Charnock SJ, Davies GJ. Structure of the nucleotide-diphospho-sugar transferase, SpsA from Bacillus subtilis, in native and nucleotide-complexed forms. Biochemistry 1999; 38:6380-6385.

48. Rodriguez CI, Buchholz F, Galloway J, Sequerra R, Kasper J, Ayala R, Stewart AF, Dymecki SM. High-efficiency deleter mice showthat FLPe is an alternative to Cre-loxP. Nat Genet 2000; 25:139-140.

49. Burk DT. Morphological effects of Streptomyces hyaluronidase treatment on the outgrowth of the nasal processes in mouse embryos. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol 1985; 5:385-398.

50. Spicer AP, Tien JL, Joo A, Bowling RA Jr. Investigation of hyaluronan function in the mouse through targeted mutagenesis. Glycoconj J 2003; 19:341-345.

Chemistry and Biology of Hyaluronan H.G. Garg and C.A. Hales (editors) © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Thank you for deciding to learn more about the disorder, Osteoarthritis. Inside these pages, you will learn what it is, who is most at risk for developing it, what causes it, and some treatment plans to help those that do have it feel better. While there is no definitive “cure” for Osteoarthritis, there are ways in which individuals can improve their quality of life and change the discomfort level to one that can be tolerated on a daily basis.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment