Human Brain Software
Functional Neuroanatomy of the Pain System 3 Usunoff KG, Popratiloff A, Schmitt O, Wree A Functional neuroanatomy of pain. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 2006 184 1-119. 6 Lazarov NE Comparative analysis of the chemical neuroanatomy of the mammalian trigeminal ganglion and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. Prog Neurobiol 2002 66 19-60. 7 McHugh JM, McHugh WB Pain neuroanatomy, chemical mediators, and clinical implications. AACN Clin Issues 2000 11 168-178. 15 Willis WD, Westlund KN Neuroanatomy of the pain system and of the pathways that modulate pain. J Clin Neurophysiol 1997 14 2-31. 18 Schnitzler A, Ploner M Neurophysiology and functional neuroanatomy of pain perception. J Clin Neurophysiol 2000 17 592-603.
Examination of fluid circulating in the human brain shows higher-than-normal levels of testosterone in smokers addicted to nicotine and lower-than-normal levels in persons suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. Blood studies find that female smokers and overweight women have higher testosterone levels than nonsmokers or lean persons. Such discoveries have led investigators to speculate that testosterone affects those conditions. Heightened testosterone levels have also been seen in women experiencing major depression. Among men with low body levels of testosterone, supplemental doses may help reduce depression. The drug's ability to affect depression was under investigation when this book was written.
Habenula, interpeducular nucleus, several motor and sensory nuclei of the thalamus, the basal ganglia, layers I, II, and IV of cerebral cortex, and the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus.31-35 More recently, 3H -epibatidine has been shown to label at least two sites in rodent and human brain homogenates.36 Higher resolution has been achieved autoradiographically, indicating that the distribution of 3H -epibatidine-labeled sites, which includes the a402 subtype as well as other subtype(s) that most likely contain a3, is very similar to that revealed by the aforementioned ligands, albeit of generally higher density.37
Acute infection and inflammation are the most evident situations that demonstrate the effects of cytokines on the brain, although very little detailed information is available on the circulating amounts of TNF-a and IL-6 during infection and inflammation besides the acute phase of sepsis. Moreover, there is a range of other clinical conditions where peripheral cytokine signals might modulate complex human brain functions. Numerous studies showed that the therapeutic administration of cytokines for the treatment of hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, or rheumathoid arthritis can induce depressive symptomatology, which widely overlaps with the syndrome of sickness behavior observed in animal models of infection and inflammation. However, in these clinical situations and during acute febrile infections the amounts of circulating inflammatory cytokines are huge, usually two orders of magnitude or more above baseline levels. In contrast, circulating levels are only slightly or moderately...
C., Van Meir, E., Gauthier, T., Hamou, M. F., and de Tribolet, N. (1992) Differential expression of the CD44 molecule in human brain tumours. Int., J. Cancer 50, 572-577. 64. Chekenya, M., Rooprai, H. K., Davies, D., Levine, J. M., Butt, A. M., and Pilkington, G. J. (1999) The NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan role in malignant progression of human brain tumours. Int J. Dev. Neurosci. 17, 421-435. 72. Giordana, M. T., Germano, I., Giaccone, G., Mauro, A., Migheli, A., and Schiffer, D. (1985) The distribution of laminin in human brain tumors an immunohisto-chemical study. Acta. NeuroPathol. (Berl) 67, 51-57. 82. Brekke, C., Lundervold, A., Enger, P. 0., et al. (2006) NG2 expression regulates vascular morphology and function in human brain tumours. Neurolmage 29, 965-976. Epub Oct 25, 2005.
Transsulfuration is so called because the sulfur of homocysteine is transferred to the carbon chain of serine, yielding cysteine (Fig. 6). Transsulfura-tion serves the functions of removing toxic methionine and producing cys-teine required for GSH and protein synthesis. In the brain, for example, methionine levels are below 1 (M. Cerebral cortical synaptosomes from adult rats contain 0.2 (mol methionine g protein compared with 25 (mol taurine g protein53. In biopsied human brain, methionine and phenylalanine were present in the lowest concentration of all amino acids examined50. Both enzymes involved in transsulfuration are pyridoxal phosphate-dependent. The significance of transsulfuration is indicated by the consequences of genetic deficiency in cystathionine B-synthase deficiency. Deficiency is associated with homocystinuria, hypermethioninemia, and decreased conversion of me-thionine to sulfate. Clinically, there are vascular, mental, skeletal and visual abnormalities.
Suffering and pain are persistent features of human life, but they are not timeless or placeless states. They can involve specific churches and local communities, as well as widely shared genes and neurons. We cannot fully understand them apart from an awareness of how the human brain situates us inescapably within the modifying environments of a particular time and place, and culture.
And infections of soft tissues, bone, peritoneal fluid, and catheters, especially in patients with underlying diseases. Staphylococcus schleiferi has been implicated in human brain empyema, osteoarithritis, bacteremia, wound infections, and infections associated with a cranial drain and jugular catheter. This species occurs less frequently than S. lugdunensis in the hospital environment and human infections. Staphylo-coccus saprophyticus is an important opportunistic pathogen in human urinary tract infections, especially in young, sexually active females. It is considered to be the second most common cause of urinary tract infections, such as acute cystitis or pyelonephritis, in these patients. This species can also produce in men urinary tract infections, which (unlike those in women) occur most commonly in the elderly with predisposing diseases of the urinary tract (Marrie et al., 1982a Hovelius et al., 1984 Ho-velius, 1986). Staphylococcus saprophyticus has occasionally been...
Vector map showing the preferred orientation of white-matter tracts in the human brain from a diffusion-tensor imaging examination. The color map shows the orientation of the tracts in a medial-lateral (red), anterior-posterior (green), and through plane (blue) composite. (Courtesy of M. Moseley, Synarc, Inc. and Sanford University.) (See color insert.) Figure 7 Diffusion-tensor MRI. Vector map showing the preferred orientation of white-matter tracts in the human brain from a diffusion-tensor imaging examination. The color map shows the orientation of the tracts in a medial-lateral (red), anterior-posterior (green), and through plane (blue) composite. (Courtesy of M. Moseley, Synarc, Inc. and Sanford University.) (See color insert.)
Was Julius Axelrod's work on the reuptake phenomenon of neurotransmitters, for which he won a 1970 Nobel prize in medicine or physiology. .Axelrod's work, which built on a biological foundation for mental health research that had begun with the psychopharmacology revolution of the 1950s and 1960s, punctuated the ascendancy of neuroscience research at NIMH as well as at the National Institute on Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS). These two institutes now lead a trans-NIH neurosciences initiative. One of its components is the Human Brain initiative, which supports research on and development of advanced technologies and infrastructure through cooperative efforts among neuroscientists and information scientists. The goal is to produce new digital capabilities in an Internet-based information management system.
C., Miller, M., Shamraj, O. I., Miura, N. H., Larson, J. J., DeTribolet, N., Warnick, R. E., Tew, J. J., and Menon, A. G. (1994). RNA expression of complement regulatory proteins in human brain tumors. Cancer Lett 86, 143-149 Simpson, K. L., Jones, A., Norman, S., and Holmes, C. H. (1997). Expression of the complement regulatory proteins decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55), membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) and CD59 in the normal human uterine cervix and in premalignant and malignant cervical disease. Am J Pathol 151, 1455-1467 Sohn, J. H., Bora, P. S., Jha, P., Tezel, T. H., Kaplan, H. J., and Bora, N. S. (2007).
Human brain parenchymal microglia express CD14 and CD45 and are productively infected by HIV-1 in HIV-1 encephalitis, Brain Pathol 12, 442, 2002. 40. Peress N.S. et al. Identification of Fc gamma RI, II and III on normal human brain ramified microglia and on microglia in senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease, J. Neuroimmunol. 48, 71, 1993. 68. Downen M. et al. Neuronal death in cytokine-activated primary human brain cell culture role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Glia 28, 114, 1999.
Keyoung HM, Roy NS, Benraiss A, Louissaint A Jr, Suzuki A, Hashimoto M, Rashbaum WK, Okano H, Goldman SA (2001) Prospective identification, selection and extraction of two distinct pools of neural stem cells from fetal human brain. Nat Biotechnol 19 843-850 Kohyama J, Tokunaga A, Fujita Y, Miyoshi H, Nagai T, Miyawaki A, Nakao K, Mastuzaki Y, Okano H (2005) Visualization of spatio-temporal activation of Notch signaling live monitoring and significance in neural development. DevBiol 286 311-325 Lindvall O, Kokaia Z, Martinez-Serrano A (2004) Stem cell therapy for human neurodegenerative disorders-how to make it work. Nat Med 10 Suppl S42-S50
More than half of all behavioral care is delivered by PCPs who still miss as much as 80 of the patients who could benefit from such services. Clearly, PCPs need much more than the few hours of the lectures in psychiatry that are included in the 4-year medical school curriculum, and psychologists and social workers must be grounded in the biological sciences with further courses in neuroanatomy, neurology, and clinical medicine. Because of the overloaded curriculum in
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