Diseases Involving Insulin Alterations

Insulin production secretion occurs in P cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas. This hormone regulates the entry of glucose into cells, and its secretion is regulated in part by glucose, amino acids, free intracellular Ca+2, and glutamate dehydroxygenase (GDH). GDH dysregulation is associated with hyperin-sulinemia hyperammonemia (HI HA) syndrome, a genetic disorder involving hypo-glycemia. EGCG inhibits GDH in a reversible, allosteric manner at nanomolar levels independently of its...

In Vivo Anti Inflammatory Effects of Hp Extracts and Harpagoside

Most of the standard anti-inflammatory in vivo models depend on chemically induced tissue damage and measurement of the inflammatory response in oedema. In the rat model of formalin-induced arthritis, parenteral administration of an aqueous extract of Hp (20 mg kg) was as effective as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) phenylbutazone, but harpagoside was ineffective 17 . In Freund's adjuvant model of arthritis, again in rat, injections of an ethanolic extract of Hp, at 25, 50 and...

Anticancer and Immunomodulatory Properties of Tinospora

Abstract There has been an upsurge in the discovery of bioactive phytochemicals having a chemopreventive ability against various diseases including immunological disorders and cancer. Based on their uses in Ayurveda or herbal medicine, many plants have been the subject of experimental evaluation to provide a scientific rationale for their medicinal values. In this regard, Tinospora has a long history of use against various ailments including spasms, inflammation, arthritis, allergy, diabetes,...

The Status and Use of HpContaining Products

In Germany and some other European countries, Hp-containing products are fully-licensed drugs on the basis of their well-established use. Such products have, in general, been authorised for the supportive treatment of painful degenerative joint and muscle conditions. The UK drug authorities issued in January 2007 a traditional-use registration for a proprietary drug containing, as sole active ingredient, an aqueous extract of Hp. This over-the-counter product was issued the therapeutic...

Muscarinic Receptor Stimulation

Direct cholinergic receptor stimulation has been explored as one therapeutic target to enhance cognitive function. Cholinergic agonists are reported to facilitate learning and memory, but cholinergic antagonists impair learning and memory 20, 21 thus cholinergic agonists may be useful in cognitive disorders. Direct stimulation of the M1 muscarinic receptor with agonists such as xanomeline (2), which is an analogue of the natural compound arecoline, is reported to improve cognition both in...

Celastrus paniculatus Willd

Withanolides Mechanisms

Celastraceae seeds and seed oil have been used in Ayurvedic medicine to stimulate intellect and to sharpen the memory 169, 170 . Many of the studies undertaken to establish any pharmacological basis for the reputed effects of C. paniculatus have focused on the seeds and seed oil. When administered orally to rats, the seed oil decreased levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-HT in the brain, which was correlated with an improvement in learning and memory processes,...

Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors

Glutamate is a major neurotransmitter involved in cognitive functions. Its release by vesicular exocytosis is regulated in part by levels of free cytoplasmic Ca 2. EGCG increases this release in response to the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine via an increased Ca 2 influx through N- and P Q-type voltage-dependent Ca 2 channels in rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals 6 . This process involves phosphorylation of PKC, which subsequently phosphorylates myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase...