Of the nearly

9 million individuals in the United States with autoimmune disease, approximately 6.7 million are women. This predisposition to autoimmunity is more apparent in some diseases than others. For example, the female male ratio of individuals who suffer from diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is approximately two or three females to one male, and there are nine women for every one male afflicted with systemic lupus ery-thematosus (SLE). However, these statistics do...

AIDS and Other Acquired or Secondary Immunodeficiencies

As described above, a variety of defects in the immune system give rise to immunodeficiency. In addition to the primary immunodeficiencies, there are also acquired, or secondary, immunodeficiencies. One that has been known for some time is called acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. (As mentioned above, this condition is sometimes confused with common variable immunodeficiency, a condition that shows genetic predisposition.) The origin of acquired hypogammaglobulinemia is unknown, and its major...

Autoimmunity Can Be Induced Experimentally in Animals

Autoimmune dysfunctions similar to certain human autoimmune diseases can be induced experimentally in some animals (see Table 20-2). One of the first such animal models was discovered serendipitously in 1973 when rabbits were immunized with acetylcholine receptors purified from electric eels. The animals soon developed muscular weakness similar to that seen in myasthenia gravis. This experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) was shown to result when antibodies to the acetylcholine...

The

Immune system uses inflammation to assemble the components of an effective response and focus these resources at the site of infection. Inflammation is complex, involving vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, exudation of plasma proteins, and a gathering of inflammatory cells. Chemoattractants are key elements in calling leukocytes to sites of inflammation. These include chemokines such as IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) and...

Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases

Ideally, treatment for autoimmune diseases should be aimed at reducing only the autoimmune response while leaving the rest of the immune system intact. To date, this ideal has not been reached. Current therapies for autoimmune diseases are not cures but merely palliatives, aimed at reducing symptoms to provide the patient with an acceptable quality of life. For the most part, these treatments provide nonspecific suppression of the immune system and thus do not distinguish between a pathologic...

Httpwwwecbtorg

Every Child by Two offers information on childhood vaccination. Clinical Focus Question A connection between the new pneu-mococcus vaccine and a relatively rare form of arthritis has been reported. What data would you need to validate this report How would you proceed to evaluate this possible connection 1. Indicate whether each of the following statements is true or false. If you think a statement is false, explain why. a. Transplacental transfer of maternal IgG antibodies against measles...

MHC and Disease Susceptibility

Some HLA alleles occur at a much higher frequency in those suffering from certain diseases than in the general population. The diseases associated with particular MHC alleles include autoimmune disorders, certain viral diseases, disorders of the complement system, some neurologic disorders, and several different allergies. The association between HLA alleles and a given disease may be quantified by determining the frequency of the HLA alleles expressed by individuals afflicted with the disease,...

Chapter

Early in the last century, paul ehrlich realized that the immune system could go awry and, instead of reacting against foreign antigens, could focus its attack on self-antigens. He termed this condition horror autotoxicus. We now understand that, while mechanisms of self-tolerance normally protect an individual from potentially self-reactive lymphocytes, there are failures. They result in an inappropriate response of the immune system against self-components termed autoimmunity. In the 1960s,...

References

B27 Positivo Autoinmune

Autoimmunity provoked by infection how good is the case for T cell epitope mimicry Nat Immunol. 2 797. Charlton, B., and K. J. Lafferty. 1995. The TH1 TH2 balance in autoimmunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 7 793. Erikson, J., et al. 1998. Self-reactive B cells in nonautoimmune and autoimmune mice. Immunol. Res. 17 49. Hausmann, S., and K. W. Wucherpfennig. 1997. Activation of autoreactive T cells by peptides from human pathogens. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 9 831. Horwitz,...

Animal Models for Autoimmune Diseases

Animal models for autoimmune diseases have contributed valuable insights into the mechanism of autoimmunity, to Experimental animal models of autoimmune diseases Insulin-dependent diabetes Unknown mellitus IDDM Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE Unknown Hashimoto's thyroiditis Thyroglobulin EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis EAMG Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE Autoimmune arthritis AA Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis EAT...

Organ Specific Autoimmune Diseases

In an organ-specific autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed to a target antigen unique to a single organ or gland, so that the manifestations are largely limited to that organ. The cells of the target organs may be damaged di- Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor Gastric parietal cells intrinsic factor Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis Brain or white matter Connective tissue, IgG Nuclei, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, kidney Salivary gland, liver, kidney, thyroid DNA,...

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Attacks Many Tissues

Myasthenia Gravis Rash

One of the best examples of a systemic autoimmune disease is systemic lupus erythematosus SLE , which typically appears in women between 20 and 40 years of age the ratio of female to male patients is 10 1. SLE is characterized by fever, weakness, arthritis, skin rashes, pleurisy, and kidney dysfunction Figure 20-6 . Lupus is more frequent in African-American and Hispanic women than in Caucasians, although it is not known why this is so. Affected individuals may produce auto-antibodies to a vast...

Since World

Penicillin has been used to successfully treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. However, the penicillin family of antibiotics is not without drawbacks. One is the role of penicillins and other antibiotics in the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Another is their capacity to induce allergic reactions in some patients. Penicillin and its relatives are responsible for most of the recorded allergic reactions to drugs and 97 of the deaths caused each year by drug allergies....