Acknowledgements

The Big Heart Disease Lie

Natural Healing for Cardiovascular Disease

Get Instant Access

This chapter draws on material published earlier in the BMJ.58 We are grateful to Iain Chalmers for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this chapter.

1 Gelber RD, Goldhirsch A. From the overview to the patient: how to interpret metaanalysis data. Recent Results Cancer Res 1993;127:167-76.

2 Oxman AD, Guyatt GH. A consumer's guide to subgroup analyses. Ann Intern Med 1992;116:78-84.

3 Sacks H, Chalmers TC, Smith H Jr. Randomized versus historical controls for clinical trials. Am J Med 1982;72:233-40.

4 Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman D. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995;273:408-12.

5 Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, et al. Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses? Lancet 1998;352:609-13.

6 Prendiville W, Elbourne D, Chalmers I. The effects of routine oxytocic administration in the management of the third stage of labour: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1988;95:3-16.

7 Moher D, Jadad AR, Tugwell P. Assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials. Current issues and future directions. Int J Technol Assess Hlth Care 1996;12:195-208.

8 Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT statement. JAMA 1996;276:637-9.

9 Schulz KF. Randomised trials, human nature, and reporting guidelines. Lancet 1996;348:596-8.

10 Juni P, Witschi A, Bloch R, Egger M. The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trial for meta-analysis. JAMA 1999;282:1054-60.

11 Smith BJ, Darzins PJ, Quinn M, Heller RF. Modern methods of searching the medical literature. Med J Aust 1992;157:603-11.

12 Dickersin K. Research registers. In: Cooper H, Hedges LV, eds. The handbook of research synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1994.

13 Chalmers TC, Celano P, Sacks HS, Smith H. Bias in treatment assignment in controlled clinical trials. N Engl J Med 1983;309:1358-61.

14 Sackett DL, Gent M. Controversy in counting and attributing events in clinical trials. N Engl J Med 1979;301:1410-12.

15 Peduzzi P, Wittes J, Detre K, Holford T. Analysis as-randomized and the problem of non-adherence: an example from the veterans affairs randomized trial of coronary artery bypass surgery. Stat Med 1993;12:1185-95.

16 May GS, Demets DL, Friedman LM, Furberg C, Passamani E. The randomized clinical trial: bias in analysis. Circulation 1981;64:669-73.

17 Moher D, Jadad AR, Nichol G, Penman M, Tugwell P, Walsh S. Assessing the quality of randomized controlled trials: an annotated bibliography of scales and checklists. Controlled Clin Trials 1995;16:62-73.

18 Greenland S. Quality scores are useless and potentially misleading. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:300-2.

19 Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carrol D, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Controlled Clin Trials 1996;17:1-12.

20 Chalmers TC. Problems induced by meta-analyses. Stat Med 1991;10:971-80.

21 Moher D, Fortin P, Jadad AR, et al. Completeness of reporting of trials published in languages other than English: implications for conduct and reporting of systematic reviews. Lancet 1996;347:363-6.

22 Berlin JA, on behalf of University of Pennsylvania Meta-analysis Blinding Study Group. Does blinding of readers affect the results of meta-analyses? Lancet 1997;350:185-6.

23 Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook (updated July 1999). In: The Cochrane Library (database on disk and CD-ROM). The Cochrane Collaboration. Oxford: Update Software, 1999.

24 Freemantle N, Cleland J, Young P, Mason J, Harrison J. Beta blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis. BMJ 1999;318:1730-7.

25 Sackett DL, Deeks JJ, Altman D. Down with odds ratios! Evidence-Based Med 1996;1:164-7.

26 Deeks J. When can odds ratios mislead? BMJ 1998;317:1155.

27 Laupacis A, Sackett DL, Roberts RS. An assessment of clinically useful measures of the consequences of treatment. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1728-33.

28 G0tzsche PC. Sensitivity of effect variables in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of 130 placebo controlled NSAID trials. J Clin Epidemiol 1990;43:1313-18.

29 Galbraith R. A note on graphical presentation of estimated odds ratios from several clinical trials. Stat Med 1988;7:889-94.

30 Bailey K. Inter-study differences: how should they influence the interpretation and analysis of results? Stat Med 1987;6:351-8.

31 Thompson SG. Why sources of heterogeneity in meta-analysis should be investigated. BMJ 1994;309:1351-5.

32 Colditz GA, Brewer TF, Berkley CS, et al. Efficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosis. JAMA 1994;271:698-702.

33 L'Abbé KA, Detsky AS, O'Rourke K. Meta-analysis in clinical research. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:224-33.

34 Light RJ, Pillemer DB. Summing up. The science of reviewing research. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.

35 Van Howe RS. Circumcision and HIV infection: review of the literature and metaanalysis. Int J STD AIDS 1999;10:8-16.

36 O'Farrell N, Egger M. Circumcision in men and the prevalence of HIV infection: a meta-analysis revisited. Int J STD AIDS 2000; 11:137-42.

37 Last JM. A dictionary of epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

38 Berlin J, Laird NM, Sacks HS, Chalmers TC. A comparison of statistical methods for combining event rates from clinical trials. Stat Med 1989;8:141-51.

39 Yusuf S, Peto R, Lewis J, Collins R, Sleight P. Beta blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomized trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1985;17:335-71.

40 DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Controlled Clin Trials 1986;7:177-88.

41 Fine PEM. Variation in protection by BCG: implications of and for heterologous immunity. Lancet 1995;346:1339-45.

42 Carlin JB. Meta-analysis for 2 x 2 tables: a Bayesian approach. Stat Med 1992;11:141-58.

43 Bland JM, Altman DG. Bayesians and frequentists. BMJ 1998;317:1151.

44 Spiegelhalter DJ, Myles JP, Jones DR, Abrams KR. An introduction to bayesian methods in health technology assessment. BMJ 1999;319:508-12.

45 Lilford RJ, Braunholtz D. The statistical basis of public policy: a paradigm shift is overdue. BMJ 1996;313:603-7.

46 Su XY, Li Wan Po A. Combining event rates from clinical trials: comparison of bayesian and classical methods. Ann Pharmacother 1996;30:460-5.

47 Thompson SG, Smith TC, Sharp SJ. Investigating underlying risk as a source of heterogeneity in meta-analysis. Stat Med 1997;16:2741-58.

48 Fredman L. Bayesian statistical methods. BMJ 1996;313:569-70.

49 Song F, Abrams KR, Jones DR, Sheldon TA. Systematic reviews of trials and other studies. Health Technol Assess 1998;2(19).

50 Eddy DM, Hasselblad V, Shachter R. Meta-analysis by the confidence profile method. The statistical synthesis of evidence. Boston: Academic Press, 1992.

51 Easterbrook PJ, Berlin J, Gopalan R, Matthews DR. Publication bias in clinical research. Lancet 1991;337:867-72.

52 Anon. A randomized trial of propranolol in patients with acute myocardial infarction. I. Mortality results. JAMA 1982;247:1707-14.

53 Boissel JP, Leizorovicz A, Picolet H, Ducruet T. Efficacy of acebutolol after acute myocardial infarction (the APSI trial). The APSI Investigators. Am J Cardiol 1990;66:24C-31C.

54 Green S, Fleming TR, Emerson S. Effects on overviews of early stopping rules for clinical trials. Stat Med 1987;6:361-7.

55 The Multicenter Postinfarction Research Group. Risk stratification and survival after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1983;309:331-6.

56 Altman DG. Confidence intervals for the number needed to treat. BMJ 1998;317:1309-12.

57 Chatellier G, Zapletal E, Lemaitre D, Menard J, Degoulet P. The number needed to treat: a clinically useful nomogram in its proper context. BMJ 1996;312:426-9.

58 Egger M, Davey Smith G, Phillips AN. Meta-analysis: principles and procedures. BMJ 1997;315:1533-7.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment