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il monomer "single part"; monomers are joined to form a polymer multimer composed of many similar parts multinucleate having many nuclei within a single cell membrane mutagen any substance or agent capable of causing a change in the structure of DNA

mutagenesis creation of mutations mutation change in DNA sequence nanometer 10-9(exp) meters; one billionth of a meter nascent early-stage necrosis cell death from injury or disease nematode worm of the Nematoda phylum, many of which are parasitic neonatal newborn neoplasms new growths neuroimaging techniques for making images of the brain neurological related to brain function or disease neuron nerve cell neurotransmitter molecule released by one neuron to stimulate or inhibit a neuron or other cell non-polar without charge separation; not soluble in water normal distribution distribution of data that graphs as a bell-shaped curve

Northern blot a technique for separating RNA molecules by electrophoresis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe

Northern blotting separating RNA molecules by electrophoresis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe nuclear DNA DNA contained in the cell nucleus on one of the 46 human chromosomes; distinct from DNA in the mitochondria nuclear membrane membrane surrounding the nucleus nuclease enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA

nucleic acid DNA or RNA

nucleoid region of the bacterial cell in which DNA is located nucleolus portion of the nucleus in which ribosomes are made nucleoplasm material in the nucleus nucleoside building block of DNA or RNA, composed of a base and a sugar nucleoside triphosphate building block of DNA or RNA, composed of a base and a sugar linked to three phosphates nucleosome chromosome structural unit, consisting of DNA wrapped around histone proteins nucleotide a building block of RNA or DNA

ocular related to the eye oncogene gene that causes cancer oncogenesis the formation of cancerous tumors oocyte egg cell open reading frame DNA sequence that can be translated into mRNA; from start sequence to stop sequence ooooc opiate opium, morphine, and related compounds organelle membrane-bound cell compartment organic composed of carbon, or derived from living organisms; also, a type of agriculture stressing soil fertility and avoidance of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers osmotic related to differences in concentrations of dissolved substances across a permeable membrane ossification bone formation osteoarthritis a degenerative disease causing inflammation of the joints osteoporosis thinning of the bone structure outcrossing fertilizing between two different plants oviduct a tube that carries the eggs ovulation release of eggs from the ovaries ovules eggs ovum egg oxidation chemical process involving reaction with oxygen, or loss of electrons oxidized reacted with oxygen pandemic disease spread throughout an entire population parasites organisms that live in, with, or on another organism pathogen disease-causing organism pathogenesis pathway leading to disease pathogenic disease-causing pathogenicity ability to cause disease pathological altered or changed by disease pathology disease process pathophysiology disease process patient advocate a person who safeguards patient rights or advances patient interests

PCR polymerase chain reaction, used to amplify DNA

pedigrees sets of related individuals, or the graphic representation of their relationships peptide amino acid chain peptide bond bond between two amino acids percutaneous through the skin phagocytic cell-eating phenotype observable characteristics of an organism phenotypic related to the observable characteristics of an organism pheromone molecule released by one organism to influence another organism's behavior phosphate group PO4 group, whose presence or absence often regulates protein action phosphodiester bond the link between two nucleotides in DNA or RNA

phosphorylating addition of phosphate group (PO4)

phosphorylation addition of the phosphate group PO43-

phylogenetic related to the evolutionary development of a species phylogeneticists scientists who study the evolutionary development of a species phylogeny the evolutionary development of a species plasma membrane outer membrane of the cell plasmid a small ring of DNA found in many bacteria plastid plant cell organelle, including the chloroplast pleiotropy genetic phenomenon in which alteration of one gene leads to many phenotypic effects point mutation gain, loss, or change of one to several nucleotides in DNA

i polar partially charged, and usually soluble in water pollen male plant sexual organ polymer molecule composed of many similar parts polymerase enzyme complex that synthesizes DNA or RNA from individual nucleotides polymerization linking together of similar parts to form a polymer polymerize to link together similar parts to form a polymer polymers molecules composed of many similar parts polymorphic occurring in several forms polymorphism DNA sequence variant polypeptide chain of amino acids polyploidy presence of multiple copies of the normal chromosome set population studies collection and analysis of data from large numbers of people in a population, possibly including related individuals positional cloning the use of polymorphic genetic markers ever closer to the unknown gene to track its inheritance in CF families posterior rear

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prebiotic before the origin of life precursor a substance from which another is made prevalence frequency of a disease or condition in a population primary sequence the sequence of amino acids in a protein; also called primary structure primate the animal order including humans, apes, and monkeys primer short nucleotide sequence that helps begin DNA replication primordial soup hypothesized prebiotic environment rich in life's building blocks probe molecule used to locate another molecule procarcinogen substance that can be converted into a carcinogen, or cancer-causing substance procreation reproduction progeny offspring prokaryote a single-celled organism without a nucleus promoter DNA sequence to which RNA polymerase binds to begin transcription promutagen substance that, when altered, can cause mutations pronuclei egg and sperm nuclei before they fuse during fertilization proprietary exclusively owned; private il proteomic derived from the study of the lull range of proteins expressed by a living cell proteomics the study of the full range of proteins expressed by a living cell protists single-celled organisms with cell nuclei protocol laboratory procedure protonated possessing excess H+ ions; acidic pyrophosphate free phosphate group in solution quiescent non-dividing radiation high energy particles or waves capable of damaging DNA, including X rays and gamma rays recessive requiring the presence of two alleles to control the phenotype recombinant DNA DNA formed by combining segments of DNA, usually from different types of organisms recombining exchanging genetic material replication duplication of DNA

restriction enzyme an enzyme that cuts DNA at a particular sequence retina light-sensitive layer at the rear of the eye retroviruses RNA-containing viruses whose genomes are copied into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase reverse transcriptase enzyme that copies RNA into DNA ribonuclease enzyme that cuts RNA

ribosome protein-RNA complex at which protein synthesis occurs ribozyme RNA-based catalyst RNA ribonucleic acid

RNA polymerase enzyme complex that creates RNA from DNA template

RNA triplets sets of three nucleotides salinity of, or relating to, salt sarcoma a type of malignant (cancerous) tumor scanning electron microscope microscope that produces images with depth by bouncing electrons off the surface of the sample sclerae the "whites" of the eye

? scrapie prion disease of sheep and goats segregation analysis statistical test to determine pattern of inheritance for fa trait senescence a state in a cell in which it will not divide again, even in the presence of growth factors senile plaques disease serum (pl. sera) fluid portion of the blood sexual orientation attraction to one sex or the other somatic nonreproductive; not an egg or sperm

Southern blot a technique for separating DNA fragments by electrophore-sis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe

Southern blotting separating DNA fragments by electrophoresis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe speciation the creation of new species spindle football-shaped structure that separates chromosomes in mitosis spindle fiber protein chains that separate chromosomes during mitosis spliceosome RNA-protein complex that removes introns from RNA transcripts spontaneous non-inherited sporadic caused by new mutations stem cell cell capable of differentiating into multiple other cell types ooocx stigma female plant sexual organ stop codon RNA triplet that halts protein synthesis striatum part of the midbrain subcutaneous under the skin sugar glucose supercoiling coiling of the helix symbiont organism that has a close relationship (symbiosis) with another symbiosis a close relationship between two species in which at least one benefits symbiotic describes a close relationship between two species in which at least one benefits synthesis creation taxon/taxa level(s) of classification, such as kingdom or phylum taxonomical derived from the science that identifies and classifies plants and animals taxonomist a scientist who identifies and classifies organisms telomere chromosome tip template a master copy tenets generally accepted beliefs terabyte a trillion bytes of data teratogenic causing birth defects teratogens substances that cause birth defects thermodynamics process of energy transfers during reactions, or the study of these processes threatened likely to become an endangered species topological describes spatial relations, or the study of these relations topology spatial relations, or the study of these relations toxicological related to poisons and their effects transcript RNA copy of a gene transcription messenger RNA formation from a DNA sequence transcription factor protein that increases the rate of transcription of a gene transduction conversion of a signal of one type into another type transgene gene introduced into an organism transgenics transfer of genes from one organism into another translation synthesis of protein using mRNA code translocation movement of chromosome segment from one chromosome to another transposable genetic element DNA sequence that can be copied and moved in the genome transposon genetic element that moves within the genome trilaminar three-layer triploid possessing three sets of chromosomes trisomics mutants with one extra chromosome trisomy presence of three, instead of two, copies of a particular chromosome tumor mass of undifferentiated cells; may become cancerous tumor suppressor genes cell growths tumors masses of undifferentiated cells; may become cancerous vaccine protective antibodies vacuole cell structure used for storage or related functions van der Waal's forces weak attraction between two different molecules vector carrier vesicle membrane-bound sac virion virus particle wet lab laboratory devoted to experiments using solutions, cell cultures, and other "wet" substances wild-type most common form of a trait in a population Wilm's tumor a cancerous cell mass of the kidney

X ray crystallography use of X rays to determine the structure of a molecule xenobiotic foreign biological molecule, especially a harmful one zygote fertilized egg

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Osteoarthritis

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