The locomotor system

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Spine Healing Therapy

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The history of rheumatic disorders 260

Pain 260 Stiffness 261 Swelling 261 Weakness 261 Extra-articular or systemic features 261 Guide to the features of pain and stiffness encountered In specific conditions 261 Inflammatory arthritis 261 Degene rative a rthritis 261 Psychogenic symptoms 262 Traumatic lesions 262 General medical background, family and social history 262

Physical examination of locomotor system 262

General inspection 262 Aims of examination 263 Basic techniques 263 Basic abnormal signs 261

The gait 265

Painful gait 265 Painless gait 265

The spine 265

Introduction 265 History 265

Cervical spine 265

Thoracic spine 266

Lumbar spine 266 Anatomy 267

Cervical spine 267

Thoracic spine 267

Lumbar spine 267

Examination of the spine 268 Cervical spine 268 Thoracic spine 268 Lumbar spine 268 Sacroiliac joints 271

The limbs 272

Upper limb: history 272 Anatomy of the upper limb 273 The hand and wrist 273 The elbow 273 The shoulder 273 Examination of the upper limb 274 The hand and wrist 274 The elbow 276 The shoulder 276 Lower limb: history 278 The hip 278 The knee 278 The leg, ankle and foot 279 Anatomy of the lower limb 280 The hip 280 The knee 280 The foot 281 Examination of the lower limb 281 The hip 281 The knee 283 The ankle and foot 286

Investigation and management 290

Investigating common syndromes 290

Common pitfalls and how to avoid them 290

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